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      Efficacy of aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 µg, analyzed by airflow obstruction severity, age, sex, and exacerbation history: pooled analysis of ACLIFORM and AUGMENT

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          Aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 µg is a twice-daily maintenance bronchodilator for COPD. This post hoc study evaluated aclidinium/formoterol vs aclidinium 400 µg, formoterol 12 µg, or placebo in patient subgroups.

          Patients and methods

          Data were pooled from two 24-week Phase III clinical trials (ACLIFORM and AUGMENT). Patients (N=3,394) were analyzed by baseline airflow obstruction severity (moderate/severe), age (<65/≥65 years), sex, and exacerbation history (0/≥1 exacerbation in the previous 12 months). Changes from baseline vs placebo and mono-therapies were evaluated: morning pre-dose (trough) and morning 1-hour post-dose FEV 1, Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI), and moderate/severe exacerbation rates (healthcare resource utilization [HCRU] and EXAcerbations of Chronic pulmonary disease Tool [EXACT] criteria).


          Aclidinium/formoterol improved the post-dose FEV 1 vs placebo and monotherapy in all subgroups (all P<0.01) and trough FEV 1 vs placebo ( P<0.001) and formoterol ( P<0.05) across all subgroups. Improvements in trough FEV 1 were observed vs aclidinium in patients with severe airflow obstruction, patients aged <65 years, males, and patients with exacerbation history ( P<0.05). Improvements in TDI were observed vs placebo in all subgroups (all P<0.001), monotherapies for patients with moderate (formoterol P<0.05) or severe airflow obstruction (aclidinium P<0.05), patients aged <65 years (aclidinium P<0.01, formoterol P<0.05), males (formoterol P<0.05), and patients with no exacerbation history (formoterol P<0.05). HCRU exacerbation rates were lower for aclidinium/formoterol vs placebo in patients with no exacerbation history ( P<0.01). EXACT exacerbation rates were lower for aclidinium/formoterol in patients with moderate airflow obstruction vs placebo and aclidinium, patients aged <65 years vs placebo and ≥65 years vs formoterol, males vs placebo, and patients with no exacerbation history vs placebo (all P<0.05).


          Aclidinium/formoterol significantly improved post-dose FEV 1, trough FEV 1, and TDI vs placebo across all subgroups and vs monotherapy in many subgroups. These findings further support the benefits of aclidinium/formoterol for all patients with COPD.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Effects of smoking intervention and the use of an inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator on the rate of decline of FEV1. The Lung Health Study.

          To determine whether a program incorporating smoking intervention and use of an inhaled bronchodilator can slow the rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) in smokers aged 35 to 60 years who have mild obstructive pulmonary disease. Randomized clinical trial. Participants randomized with equal probability to one of the following groups: (1) smoking intervention plus bronchodilator, (2) smoking intervention plus placebo, or (3) no intervention. Ten clinical centers in the United States and Canada. A total of 5887 male and female smokers, aged 35 to 60 years, with spirometric signs of early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoking intervention: intensive 12-session smoking cessation program combining behavior modification and use of nicotine gum, with continuing 5-year maintenance program to minimize relapse. Bronchodilator: ipratropium bromide prescribed three times daily (two puffs per time) from a metered-dose inhaler. Rate of change and cumulative change in FEV1 over a 5-year period. Participants in the two smoking intervention groups showed significantly smaller declines in FEV1 than did those in the control group. Most of this difference occurred during the first year following entry into the study and was attributable to smoking cessation, with those who achieved sustained smoking cessation experiencing the largest benefit. The small noncumulative benefit associated with use of the active bronchodilator vanished after the bronchodilator was discontinued at the end of the study. An aggressive smoking intervention program significantly reduces the age-related decline in FEV1 in middle-aged smokers with mild airways obstruction. Use of an inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator results in a relatively small improvement in FEV1 that appears to be reversed after the drug is discontinued. Use of the bronchodilator did not influence the long-term decline of FEV1.
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            Smoking cessation and lung function in mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Lung Health Study.

            Previous studies of lung function in relation to smoking cessation have not adequately quantified the long-term benefit of smoking cessation, nor established the predictive value of characteristics such as airway hyperresponsiveness. In a prospective randomized clinical trial at 10 North American medical centers, we studied 3, 926 smokers with mild-to-moderate airway obstruction (3,818 with analyzable results; mean age at entry, 48.5 yr; 36% women) randomized to one of two smoking cessation groups or to a nonintervention group. We measured lung function annually for 5 yr. Participants who stopped smoking experienced an improvement in FEV(1) in the year after quitting (an average of 47 ml or 2%). The subsequent rate of decline in FEV(1) among sustained quitters was half the rate among continuing smokers, 31 +/- 48 versus 62 +/- 55 ml (mean +/- SD), comparable to that of never-smokers. Predictors of change in lung function included responsiveness to beta-agonist, baseline FEV(1), methacholine reactivity, age, sex, race, and baseline smoking rate. Respiratory symptoms were not predictive of changes in lung function. Smokers with airflow obstruction benefit from quitting despite previous heavy smoking, advanced age, poor baseline lung function, or airway hyperresponsiveness.
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              Gender and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: why it matters.

              The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in women is increasing, as is hospitalization for COPD. The number of women dying of COPD in the United States now surpasses men. Despite this, research suggests that physicians are still more likely to correctly diagnose men with COPD than women. Increased tobacco use in women likely explains some of the increase in the prevalence of COPD in women, but data suggest that women may actually be at greater risk of smoking-induced lung function impairment, more severe dyspnea, and poorer health status for the same level of tobacco exposure. The degree to which these observations represent biologic, physiologic, or sociologic differences is not known. Nonsmokers with COPD are also more likely to be female. In addition, new evidence is emerging that men and women may be phenotypically different in their response to tobacco smoke, with men being more prone to an emphysematous phenotype and women an airway predominant phenotype. Inasmuch as COPD is a disease of inflammation, it is also possible that sexual dimorphism of the human immune response may also be responsible for gender differences in the disease. More data are still needed on what the implications of these findings are on therapy. In this clinical commentary, we present current knowledge regarding how gender influences the epidemiology, diagnosis, and presentation of COPD in addition to physiologic and psychologic impairments and we attempt to offer insight into why these differences might exist and how this may influence therapeutic management.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                26 February 2019
                : 14
                : 479-491
                [1 ]Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, tonydurzo@
                [2 ]Medicines Evaluation Unit, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK
                [3 ]Division of Pulmonary Diseases & Critical Care Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
                [4 ]Clinical Research Institute of Southern Oregon, Medford, OR, USA
                [5 ]AstraZeneca, Barcelona, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Anthony D D’Urzo, Primary Care Lung Clinic, 1670 Dufferin Street, Suite 107, Toronto, ON M6H 3M2, Canada, Email tonydurzo@
                © 2019 D’UrzoUrzo et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                copd, aclidinium, formoterol


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