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      Amylin injection causes elevated plasma lactate and glucose in the rat

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      FEBS Letters

      Elsevier BV

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          Pancreatic amylin and calcitonin gene-related peptide cause resistance to insulin in skeletal muscle in vitro.

          Insulin resistance occurs in a variety of conditions, including diabetes, obesity and essential hypertension, but its underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. In type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, it is insulin-resistance in skeletal muscle, the chief site of insulin-mediated glucose disposal in humans, that predominantly accounts for the low rates of glucose clearance from the blood, and hence for impaired glucose tolerance. Human type 2 diabetes is characterized by a decrease in non-oxidative glucose storage (muscle glycogen synthesis), and by the deposition of amyloid in the islets of Langerhans. Amylin is a 37-amino-acid peptide which is a major component of islet amyloid and has structural similarity to human calcitonin gene-related peptide-2 (CGRP-2; ref. 8). CGRP is a neuropeptide which may be involved in motor activity in skeletal muscle. We now report that human pancreatic amylin and rat CGRP-1 are potent inhibitors of both basal and insulin-stimulated rates of glycogen synthesis in stripped rat soleus muscle in vitro. These results may provide a basis for a new understanding of the molecular mechanisms that cause insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.
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            Induction of insulin resistance in vivo by amylin and calcitonin gene-related peptide.

            During hyperinsulinemic glucose-clamp studies, intravenous infusion of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rats antagonized the ability of insulin to stimulate peripheral glucose disposal by 52% (196 +/- 7.2 vs. 105 +/- 10.5 mumol.kg-1.min-1, P less than 0.05) and to inhibit hepatic glucose output by 54% (P less than 0.01). CGRP also inhibited the in vitro effects of insulin to stimulate hexose uptake in cultured BC3H1 myocytes at all insulin concentrations studied. Amylin is a peptide isolated from amyloid deposits in pancreatic islets of type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects, is present in normal beta-cells, and bears a striking homology to CGRP. When synthetic human amylin was infused during clamp studies, it inhibited the ability of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal by 56% (96.9 +/- 9.4 vs. 42.4 +/- 5.0 mumol.kg-1.min-1, P less than 0.05) and to suppress hepatic glucose output by 64%. Therefore, amylin and CGRP can cause insulin resistance in vivo and may be implicated in insulin-resistant states such as type II diabetes mellitus.
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              Amylin secretion from the rat pancreas and its selective loss after streptozotocin treatment.

              Amylin, a peptide copackaged with insulin in beta-cell granules, was measured in the effluent of the perfused rat pancreases by means of a newly developed specific radioimmunoassay. Its secretion parallels that of insulin in response to 20 mM glucose, 10 mM arginine, or the combination thereof. The relative molar amount of secreted amylin was estimated to be 25-37% that of insulin. Treatment with a borderline diabetogenic dose of streptozotocin reduced amylin response without significantly changing the insulin response. A severely diabetogenic dose of streptozotocin totally abolished amylin release and markedly reduced insulin release. The selective impairment of amylin secretion in streptozotocin-treated rats could represent an early manifestation of beta-cell depletion or injury.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                FEBS Letters
                Elsevier BV
                00145793
                October 07 1991
                October 07 1991
                January 16 2002
                : 291
                : 1
                : 101-104
                Article
                10.1016/0014-5793(91)81113-M
                © 2002

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