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      Influence of 12-years of nps fertilization on soil quality, microbial community profile and activity under conservation agricultural management Translated title: Influencia de 12 años de fertilización nps sobre la calidad del suelo, perfil y actividad de las comunidades microbianas bajo un sistema agrícola conservacionista

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          Abstract

          Microbial parameters are considered to be potential indicators of soil quality since soil microorganisms can respond rapidly to agricultural management systems. The effect of long-term fertilizer applications on soil, especially nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), and micronutrients (m) can alter soil chemistry, microbial community structure and function. The purposes of this study were to analyse the long-term effect of chemical fertilizers on soil properties, microbiological communities and function in relation to grain yields in two growing seasons (2012-2013 and 2013-2014). All fertilization treatments were applied to a maize-wheat/soybean rotation under no-till farming system. Six fertilization treatments were evaluated: PS, NS, NP, NPS, NPSm, and CK (unfertilized control). Application of N, P, and S, with several exceptions, tended to increase both total and available nutrient in comparison with nutrient-deficient treatments. In both growing seasons, CK treatment tended to show the lowest value of TOC (total organic carbon), whereas NPS and NPSm showed the highest values of grain yield. Except for dehydrogenase activity, soil basal respiration and enzyme activities tended to increase in fertilized treatments compared to CK. In 2012-2013, NPSm had the highest abundance of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In 2013-2014, CK showed the highest abundance of actinomycetes and the lowest of Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, NPSm had the highest values of total PLFA (phospholipid fatty acid) biomass in both growing seasons. Soil microbial enzymes were mainly correlated with soil pH, indicating that soil alkalinity is a key factor governing soil enzyme functionality.

          Translated abstract

          Los parámetros microbianos se consideran indicadores potenciales de la calidad del suelo, ya que los microorganismos del suelo pueden responder rápidamente a los sistemas de manejo agrícola. El efecto de las aplicaciones de fertilizantes a largo plazo en el suelo, especialmente el nitrógeno (N), el fósforo (P), el azufre (S) y los micronutrientes (m) puede alterar la química del suelo, la estructura y función de la comunidad microbiana. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron analizar el efecto a largo plazo de los fertilizantes químicos sobre las propiedades del suelo, las comunidades microbiológicas y la función en relación con los rendimientos de granos en dos campañas consecutivas (2012-2013 y 2013-2014). Todos los tratamientos de fertilización se aplicaron a una rotación de maíz-trigo/soja bajo siembra directa. Se evaluaron seis tratamientos de fertilización: PS, NS, NP, NPS, NPSm y CK (control sin fertilizantes). La aplicación de N, P y S, con algunas excepciones, tendió a aumentar los nutrientes totales y disponibles en comparación con los tratamientos con deficiencia de nutrientes. En ambas campañas, el tratamiento CK tendió a mostrar el valor más bajo de TOC. NPS y NPSm mostraron los valores más altos de rendimiento de granos. Excepto para la actividad deshidrogenasa, la respiración basal del suelo y las actividades enzimáticas tendieron a aumentar en tratamientos fertilizantes en comparación con CK. En 2012-2013, NPSm tuvo la mayor abundancia de bacterias Gram-negativas y Gram-positivas. En 2013-2014, CK mostró la mayor abundancia de actinomicetes y la más baja abundancia en bacterias Gram-negativas. Además, NPSm tuvo los valores más altos de la biomasa total (PLFA) en ambas campañas. Las enzimas microbianas del suelo se correlacionaron principalmente con el pH del suelo, lo que indica que la alcalinidad del suelo es un factor clave que rige la funcionalidad enzimática del suelo.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Use of p-nitrophenyl phosphate for assay of soil phosphatase activity

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            Impacts of Carbon and Flooding on Soil Microbial Communities: Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profiles and Substrate Utilization Patterns

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              Productivity limits and potentials of the principles of conservation agriculture.

              One of the primary challenges of our time is to feed a growing and more demanding world population with reduced external inputs and minimal environmental impacts, all under more variable and extreme climate conditions in the future. Conservation agriculture represents a set of three crop management principles that has received strong international support to help address this challenge, with recent conservation agriculture efforts focusing on smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. However, conservation agriculture is highly debated, with respect to both its effects on crop yields and its applicability in different farming contexts. Here we conduct a global meta-analysis using 5,463 paired yield observations from 610 studies to compare no-till, the original and central concept of conservation agriculture, with conventional tillage practices across 48 crops and 63 countries. Overall, our results show that no-till reduces yields, yet this response is variable and under certain conditions no-till can produce equivalent or greater yields than conventional tillage. Importantly, when no-till is combined with the other two conservation agriculture principles of residue retention and crop rotation, its negative impacts are minimized. Moreover, no-till in combination with the other two principles significantly increases rainfed crop productivity in dry climates, suggesting that it may become an important climate-change adaptation strategy for ever-drier regions of the world. However, any expansion of conservation agriculture should be done with caution in these areas, as implementation of the other two principles is often challenging in resource-poor and vulnerable smallholder farming systems, thereby increasing the likelihood of yield losses rather than gains. Although farming systems are multifunctional, and environmental and socio-economic factors need to be considered, our analysis indicates that the potential contribution of no-till to the sustainable intensification of agriculture is more limited than often assumed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                cds
                Ciencia del suelo
                Cienc. suelo
                Asociación Argentina de la Ciencia del Suelo (Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, , Argentina )
                1850-2067
                July 2018
                : 36
                : 1
                : 99-109
                Affiliations
                orgnameConsorcio Regional de Experimentación Agrícola (CREA),
                orgnameCONICET-Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (IMBIV - UNC)
                orgnameF.C.E.F.y N. - UNC orgdiv1Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de los Alimentos
                orgnameIPAVE-CIAP, INTA orgdiv1Instituto de Patología Vegetal
                S1850-20672018000100010

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 39, Pages: 11
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                Product Information: SciELO Argentina

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