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      Endothelium-Dependent Contractions

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          Abstract

          The endothelial cells help to control the tone of the underlying vascular smooth muscle by releasing vasoactive factors. In physiological circumstances, the release of relaxing factors (nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor) appears to predominate. However, in certain blood vessels (peripheral veins and large cerebral arteries), the normal endothelium has the propensity to release vasoconstrictor substances, among which are superoxide anion and thromboxane A<sub>2</sub>; the release of these endothelium-derived vasoconstrictors may contribute to the autoregulatory processes. In most blood vessels, anoxic conditions initiate the release of an unidentified endothelium-dependent contracting fractor. Cultured endothelial cells, and blood vessels maintained under culture conditions for prolonged periods of time, release the vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin. A characteristic of vascular diseases is that the ability of the endothelial cells to release relaxing factor(s) is reduced, while the generation of contracting factor is maintained or enhanced.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          JVR
          J Vasc Res
          10.1159/issn.1018-1172
          Journal of Vascular Research
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-5380-3
          978-3-318-01726-7
          1018-1172
          1423-0135
          1991
          1991
          23 September 2008
          : 28
          : 1-3
          : 74-83
          Affiliations
          aCenter for Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex., USA; bDepartment of Internal Medicine, Cardiology, University Hospitals, Kantonsspital Basel, Switzerland; cInstitute of Pathophysiology, Medical Academy of Erfurt, FRG
          Article
          158846 Blood Vessels 1991;28:74–83
          10.1159/000158846
          1900447
          © 1991 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 10
          Categories
          Endothelium-Derived and Endothelium-Independent Vasoactive Mechanisms

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