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      Repeated-sprint ability - part II: recommendations for training.

      Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.z.)

      Athletes, Athletic Performance, physiology, Female, Glycolysis, Heart, Humans, Male, Muscle Contraction, Muscle, Skeletal, metabolism, Oxygen Consumption, Phosphocreatine, Physical Endurance, Physical Fitness, Resistance Training, Running

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          Abstract

          Short-duration sprints, interspersed with brief recoveries, are common during most team sports. The ability to produce the best possible average sprint performance over a series of sprints (≤10 seconds), separated by short (≤60 seconds) recovery periods has been termed repeated-sprint ability (RSA). RSA is therefore an important fitness requirement of team-sport athletes, and it is important to better understand training strategies that can improve this fitness component. Surprisingly, however, there has been little research about the best training methods to improve RSA. In the absence of strong scientific evidence, two principal training theories have emerged. One is based on the concept of training specificity and maintains that the best way to train RSA is to perform repeated sprints. The second proposes that training interventions that target the main factors limiting RSA may be a more effective approach. The aim of this review (Part II) is to critically analyse training strategies to improve both RSA and the underlying factors responsible for fatigue during repeated sprints (see Part I of the preceding companion article). This review has highlighted that there is not one type of training that can be recommended to best improve RSA and all of the factors believed to be responsible for performance decrements during repeated-sprint tasks. This is not surprising, as RSA is a complex fitness component that depends on both metabolic (e.g. oxidative capacity, phosphocreatine recovery and H+ buffering) and neural factors (e.g. muscle activation and recruitment strategies) among others. While different training strategies can be used in order to improve each of these potential limiting factors, and in turn RSA, two key recommendations emerge from this review; it is important to include (i) some training to improve single-sprint performance (e.g. 'traditional' sprint training and strength/power training); and (ii) some high-intensity (80-90% maximal oxygen consumption) interval training to best improve the ability to recover between sprints. Further research is required to establish whether it is best to develop these qualities separately, or whether they can be developed concurrently (without interference effects). While research has identified a correlation between RSA and total sprint distance during soccer, future studies need to address whether training-induced changes in RSA also produce changes in match physical performance.

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          Increased rate of force development and neural drive of human skeletal muscle following resistance training.

          The maximal rate of rise in muscle force [rate of force development (RFD)] has important functional consequences as it determines the force that can be generated in the early phase of muscle contraction (0-200 ms). The present study examined the effect of resistance training on contractile RFD and efferent motor outflow ("neural drive") during maximal muscle contraction. Contractile RFD (slope of force-time curve), impulse (time-integrated force), electromyography (EMG) signal amplitude (mean average voltage), and rate of EMG rise (slope of EMG-time curve) were determined (1-kHz sampling rate) during maximal isometric muscle contraction (quadriceps femoris) in 15 male subjects before and after 14 wk of heavy-resistance strength training (38 sessions). Maximal isometric muscle strength [maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)] increased from 291.1 +/- 9.8 to 339.0 +/- 10.2 N. m after training. Contractile RFD determined within time intervals of 30, 50, 100, and 200 ms relative to onset of contraction increased from 1,601 +/- 117 to 2,020 +/- 119 (P < 0.05), 1,802 +/- 121 to 2,201 +/- 106 (P < 0.01), 1,543 +/- 83 to 1,806 +/- 69 (P < 0.01), and 1,141 +/- 45 to 1,363 +/- 44 N. m. s(-1) (P < 0.01), respectively. Corresponding increases were observed in contractile impulse (P < 0.01-0.05). When normalized relative to MVC, contractile RFD increased 15% after training (at zero to one-sixth MVC; P < 0.05). Furthermore, muscle EMG increased (P < 0.01-0.05) 22-143% (mean average voltage) and 41-106% (rate of EMG rise) in the early contraction phase (0-200 ms). In conclusion, increases in explosive muscle strength (contractile RFD and impulse) were observed after heavy-resistance strength training. These findings could be explained by an enhanced neural drive, as evidenced by marked increases in EMG signal amplitude and rate of EMG rise in the early phase of muscle contraction.
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            Aerobic high-intensity intervals improve VO2max more than moderate training.

            The present study compared the effects of aerobic endurance training at different intensities and with different methods matched for total work and frequency. Responses in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), stroke volume of the heart (SV), blood volume, lactate threshold (LT), and running economy (CR) were examined. Forty healthy, nonsmoking, moderately trained male subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups:1) long slow distance (70% maximal heart rate; HRmax); 2)lactate threshold (85% HRmax); 3) 15/15 interval running (15 s of running at 90-95% HRmax followed by 15 s of active resting at 70% HRmax); and 4) 4 x 4 min of interval running (4 min of running at 90-95% HRmax followed by 3 min of active resting at 70%HRmax). All four training protocols resulted in similar total oxygen consumption and were performed 3 d.wk for 8 wk. High-intensity aerobic interval training resulted in significantly increased VO2max compared with long slow distance and lactate-threshold training intensities (P<0.01). The percentage increases for the 15/15 and 4 x 4 min groups were 5.5 and 7.2%, respectively, reflecting increases in V O2max from 60.5 to 64.4 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) and 55.5 to 60.4 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1). SV increased significantly by approximately 10% after interval training (P<0.05). : High-aerobic intensity endurance interval training is significantly more effective than performing the same total work at either lactate threshold or at 70% HRmax, in improving VO2max. The changes in VO2max correspond with changes in SV, indicating a close link between the two.
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              Short-term sprint interval versus traditional endurance training: similar initial adaptations in human skeletal muscle and exercise performance.

              Brief, intense exercise training may induce metabolic and performance adaptations comparable to traditional endurance training. However, no study has directly compared these diverse training strategies in a standardized manner. We therefore examined changes in exercise capacity and molecular and cellular adaptations in skeletal muscle after low volume sprint-interval training (SIT) and high volume endurance training (ET). Sixteen active men (21 +/- 1 years, ) were assigned to a SIT or ET group (n = 8 each) and performed six training sessions over 14 days. Each session consisted of either four to six repeats of 30 s 'all out' cycling at approximately 250% with 4 min recovery (SIT) or 90-120 min continuous cycling at approximately 65% (ET). Training time commitment over 2 weeks was approximately 2.5 h for SIT and approximately 10.5 h for ET, and total training volume was approximately 90% lower for SIT versus ET ( approximately 630 versus approximately 6500 kJ). Training decreased the time required to complete 50 and 750 kJ cycling time trials, with no difference between groups (main effects, P
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                21846163
                10.2165/11590560-000000000-00000

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