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      Elevated Salt and Nitrate Levels in Drinking Water Cause an Increase of Blood Pressure in Schoolchildren


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          Aim: To assess the influence on blood pressure in schoolchildren, of elevated sodium (Na<sup>+</sup>) and nitrate (NO<sup>–</sup><sub>3</sub>) levels in the drinking water. Methods: The blood pressure was recorded in three groups of age- and weight-matched schoolchildren (fourth and fifth graders) ingesting differing Na<sup>+</sup> and NO<sup>–</sup><sub>3</sub> concentrations with their drinking water. Group 1 (n = 452) imbibed high-Na<sup>+</sup>, high-NO<sup>–</sup><sub>3</sub> water (196 and 49 mg/l, respectively); group 2 (n = 418) consumed low-Na<sup>+</sup>, high-NO<sup>–</sup><sub>3</sub> water (25 and 49 mg/l, respectively) and group 3 (n = 86) drank low-Na<sup>+</sup>, low-NO<sup>–</sup><sub>3</sub> water (35 and 25 mg/l, respectively). The chloride (Cl<sup>–</sup>) concentrations varied in parallel to those of Na<sup>+</sup>. Results: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were significantly increased in group 1 versus groups 2 and 3 (115.6 ± 12.2 and 86.4 ± 9.6 mm Hg vs. 111.1 ± 11.6 and 83 ± 8.3 and 107 ± 8.8 and 81 ± 7.2 mm Hg, respectively, p < 0.05). The SBP in group 2 was also significantly higher than in group 3 (111.1 ± 11.6 vs. 107 ± 8.8 mm Hg; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Elevated Na<sup>+</sup> (and possibly Cl<sup>–</sup>) in combination with high NO<sup>–</sup><sub>3</sub> concentrations in drinking water leads to an increase of SBP and MAP in fourth and fifth graders. The effects of Na<sup>+</sup> (and/or Cl<sup>–</sup>) and NO<sup>–</sup><sub>3</sub> on SBP and MAP appear to be additive, yet independent of each other.

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          Author and article information

          Kidney Blood Press Res
          Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
          S. Karger AG
          02 November 2000
          : 23
          : 6
          : 400-403
          aPediatric Nephrology Clinic, Meir Hospital, Kfar Saba, bChild Health Care Clinic, Kiryat Shemona, and Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
          25989 Kidney Blood Press Res 2000;23:400–403
          © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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          Page count
          Tables: 3, References: 14, Pages: 4
          Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/25989
          Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/25989
          Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
          Original Paper

          Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
          Blood pressure, children,Drinking water,Salt,Nitrate
          Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology
          Blood pressure, children, Drinking water, Salt, Nitrate


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