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      Assessment of geraniol-incorporated polymers to control Aedes albopictus (Diptera: culicidae) Translated title: Évaluation du contrôle d’ Aedes albopictus (Diptera : Culicidae) à l’aide de polymères incorporés de géraniol

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          Abstract

          Effective control of mosquito borne diseases has proven extremely difficult with both vector and pathogen remaining entrenched and expanding in many disease endemic areas. When lacking an effective vaccine, vector control methods targeting both larval habitats and adult mosquito populations remain the primary strategy for reducing risk. Aedes albopictus from Thailand was used as a reference baseline for evaluation of natural insecticides incorporated in polymer disks and pellets and tested both in laboratory and field conditions. In laboratory and field tests, the highest larval mortality was obtained with disks or pellets containing IKHC (Insect Killer Highly Concentrate) from Fulltec AG Company. This product is reputed to contain geraniol as an active ingredient. With pellets, high mortality of Ae. albopictus larvae (92%) was observed in presence of 1 g of pellets per 500 ml of water at day 1st, and the mortality was 100% at day 1st for larvae in presence of 5 or 10 g of pellets. Fulltec AG Company has not accepted to give us the exact composition of their IKHC product. Therefore, we cannot recommend it, but the principle of using monoterpenes like geraniol, incorporated into polymer disks or pellets as natural larvicide needs more attention as it could be considered as a powerful alternative in mosquito vector control.

          Translated abstract

          Le contrôle effectif des maladies à transmission vectorielle est très difficile, les vecteurs et les pathogènes se maintenant souvent en position retranchée et se développant dans de nombreux foyers endémiques. En l’absence de vaccin efficace, les méthodes de lutte antivectorielle ciblant à la fois les habitats larvaires et les populations d’adultes restent la stratégie de choix pour réduire le risque. Aedes albopictus en Thaïlande a été choisi pour des tests d’évaluation d’insecticides naturels incorporés dans des disques ou des granulés de polymères, à la fois au laboratoire et sur le terrain. Dans tous les tests, la mortalité larvaire la plus élevée a été obtenue avec les disques et les granulés contenant de l’IKHC ( Insect Killer Highly Concentrate) de la compagnie Fulltec AG. Ce produit est réputé contenir du géraniol comme matière active. Avec les granulés, une mortalité de 92% a été observée en présence d’un gramme de granulés pour 500 ml d’eau dès le premier jour, et cette mortalité était de 100% en présence de 5 et 10 g de granulés dès le premier jour. La compagnie Fulltec AG n’ayant pas accepté de nous donner la composition exacte de leur IKHC, nous ne pouvons recommander ce produit. Mais le principe d’utiliser des monoterpènes incorporés dans des disques ou des granulés de polymères, comme traitement larvicide, nécessite une grande attention, car cela pourrait devenir une méthode alternative efficace de contrôle des moustiques.

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          Frequency of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.

          Thirty-two Aedes aegypti populations collected throughout Thailand and five populations of Aedes albopictus from southern Thailand were subjected to standard WHO contact bioassays to assess susceptibility to three commonly used synthetic pyrethroids: permethrin, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin. A wide degree of physiological response to permethrin was detected in Ae. aegypti, ranging from 56.5% survival (Lampang, northern Thailand) to only 4% (Kalasin in northeastern and Phuket in southern Thailand). All 32 populations of Ae. aegypti were found to have evidence of incipient resistance (62.5%) or levels of survival deemed resistant (37.5%) to permethrin. Four populations of Ae. albopictus were found with incipient resistance (97 - 80% mortality) and one with resistance ( 98% mortality) to deltamethrin, with incipient resistance (observed 97-82% mortality) in other localities. In contrast, all populations of Ae. aegypti were completely susceptible (100% mortality) to the recommended operational dosage of lambda-cyhalothrin. All five populations of Ae. albopictus were found completely susceptible to both deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. Evidence of defined incipient or resistance to synthetic pyrethroids mandates appropriate response and countermeasures to mitigate further development and spread of resistance. In light of these findings, we conclude that routine and comprehensive susceptibility monitoring of dengue mosquito vectors to synthetic pyrethroids should be a required component of resistance management policies and disease control activities. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.
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            Eucalyptus oleosa Essential Oils: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Oils from Different Plant Parts (Stems, Leaves, Flowers and Fruits)

            Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the different parts (stems, adult leaves, immature flowers and fruits) of Eucalyptus oleosa were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their chemical composition. According to GC-FID and GC-MS, the principal compound of the stem, immature flowers and the fruit oils was 1,8-cineole, representing 31.5%, 47.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Spathulenol (16.1%) and γ-eudesmol (15.0%) were the two principal compounds of adult leaves oil. In the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay, the oils of the four parts showed moderate antioxidant activity. In the ABTS (2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) assay, the most active part was the adult leaves, with a IC50 value 13.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, followed by stems (IC50 = 43.5 ± 1.4 mg/L). The essential oils showed a better antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and a significant antifungal activity also was observed against yeast-like fungi. A strong correlations between oxygenated monoterpenes and antimicrobial activity (especially 1,8-cineole) were noted (R2 = 0.99, 0.97 and 0.79 for B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans, respectively).
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              Composition and functional properties of the essential oil of amazonian basil, Ocimum micranthum Willd., Labiatae in comparison with commercial essential oils.

              Wild Amazonian basil Ocimum micranthum Willd. (O. campechianum Mill.) Labiatae essential oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS: 31 compounds were identified. The main components were eugenol (46.55 +/- 5.11%), beta-caryophyllene (11.94 +/- 1.31%), and beta-elemene (9.06 +/- 0.99%), while a small amount of linalool (1.49 +/- 0.16%) was detected. The oil was tested for its in vitro food-related biological activities and compared with common basil Ocimum basilicum and Thymus vulgaris commercial essential oils. Radical scavenging activity was evaluated employing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The oil exerted a good capacity to act as a nonspecific donor of hydrogen atoms or electrons when checked in the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay, quenching 76,61 +/- 0.33% of the radical, with values higher than those reported by reference oils. In the beta-carotene bleaching test, the oil provided an antioxidant efficacy comparable with that of O. basilicum and T. vulgaris essential oils. These data were confirmed by photochemiluminescence, where the oil showed a remarkable antioxidant capacity (2.39 +/- 0.1), comparable to that of Trolox and vitamin E, and higher than the other essential oils. Antibacterial activity of O. micranthum essential oil was evaluated against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. The oil showed a dose-dependent antifungal activity against pathogenic and food spoiling yeasts.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                November 2012
                15 November 2012
                : 19
                : 4 ( publisher-idID: parasite/2012/04 )
                : 427-432
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University Bangkok 10900 Thailand
                [2 ] Institute of Research for Development (IRD), Laboratory of Molecular Immuno-physiology (UMR-MD3), University Montpellier1-2 Montpellier France
                [3 ] Centre for Functional and Evolutionary Ecology (UMR 5175- CEFE), Paul-Valery University Montpellier France
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap. E-mail: faasthc@ 123456ku.ac.th
                Article
                parasite2012194p427 10.1051/parasite/2012194427
                10.1051/parasite/2012194427
                3671461
                22910616
                © PRINCEPS Editions, Paris, 2012

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 10, Equations: 0, References: 12, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Research Note

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