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      Transcriptional Regulation by Nrf2

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          Abstract

          Significance: Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that coordinates the basal and stress-inducible activation of a vast array of cytoprotective genes. Understanding the regulation of Nrf2 activity and downstream pathways has major implications for human health.

          Recent Advances: Nrf2 regulates the transcription of components of the glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant systems, as well as enzymes involved in phase I and phase II detoxification of exogenous and endogenous products, NADPH regeneration, and heme metabolism. It therefore represents a crucial regulator of the cellular defense mechanisms against xenobiotic and oxidative stress. In addition to antioxidant responses, Nrf2 is involved in other cellular processes, such as autophagy, intermediary metabolism, stem cell quiescence, and unfolded protein response. Given the wide range of processes that Nrf2 controls, its activity is tightly regulated at multiple levels. Here, we review the different modes of regulation of Nrf2 activity and the current knowledge of Nrf2-mediated transcriptional control.

          Critical Issues: It is now clear that Nrf2 lies at the center of a complex regulatory network. A full comprehension of the Nrf2 program will require an integrated consideration of all the different factors determining Nrf2 activity.

          Future Directions: Additional computational and experimental studies are needed to obtain a more dynamic global view of Nrf2-mediated gene regulation. In particular, studies comparing how the Nrf2-dependent network changes from a physiological to a pathological condition can provide insight into mechanisms of disease and instruct new treatment strategies.

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          Most cited references 123

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          Oxidative Stress, Prooxidants, and Antioxidants: The Interplay

          Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon in the body. Under normal conditions, the physiologically important intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are maintained at low levels by various enzyme systems participating in the in vivo redox homeostasis. Therefore, oxidative stress can also be viewed as an imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants in the body. For the last two decades, oxidative stress has been one of the most burning topics among the biological researchers all over the world. Several reasons can be assigned to justify its importance: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and metabolism; identification of biomarkers for oxidative damage; evidence relating manifestation of chronic and some acute health problems to oxidative stress; identification of various dietary antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and so on. This review discusses the importance of oxidative stress in the body growth and development as well as proteomic and genomic evidences of its relationship with disease development, incidence of malignancies and autoimmune disorders, increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases, and an interplay with prooxidants and antioxidants for maintaining a sound health, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue.
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            A noncanonical mechanism of Nrf2 activation by autophagy deficiency: direct interaction between Keap1 and p62.

            In response to stress, cells can utilize several cellular processes, such as autophagy, which is a bulk-lysosomal degradation pathway, to mitigate damages and increase the chances of cell survival. Deregulation of autophagy causes upregulation of p62 and the formation of p62-containing aggregates, which are associated with neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. The Nrf2-Keap1 pathway functions as a critical regulator of the cell's defense mechanism against oxidative stress by controlling the expression of many cellular protective proteins. Under basal conditions, Nrf2 is ubiquitinated by the Keap1-Cul3-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and targeted to the 26S proteasome for degradation. Upon induction, the activity of the E3 ubiquitin ligase is inhibited through the modification of cysteine residues in Keap1, resulting in the stabilization and activation of Nrf2. In this current study, we identified the direct interaction between p62 and Keap1 and the residues required for the interaction have been mapped to 349-DPSTGE-354 in p62 and three arginines in the Kelch domain of Keap1. Accumulation of endogenous p62 or ectopic expression of p62 sequesters Keap1 into aggregates, resulting in the inhibition of Keap1-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and its subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In contrast, overexpression of mutated p62, which loses its ability to interact with Keap1, had no effect on Nrf2 stability, demonstrating that p62-mediated Nrf2 upregulation is Keap1 dependent. These findings demonstrate that autophagy deficiency activates the Nrf2 pathway in a noncanonical cysteine-independent mechanism.
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              Phosphorylated CREB binds specifically to the nuclear protein CBP.

              Cyclic AMP-regulated gene expression frequently involves a DNA element known as the cAMP-regulated enhancer (CRE). Many transcription factors bind to this element, including the protein CREB, which is activated as a result of phosphorylation by protein kinase A. This modification stimulates interaction with one or more of the general transcription factors or, alternatively, allows recruitment of a co-activator. Here we report that CREB phosphorylated by protein kinase A binds specifically to a nuclear protein of M(r) 265K which we term CBP (for CREB-binding protein). Fusion of a heterologous DNA-binding domain to the amino terminus of CBP enables the chimaeric protein to function as a protein kinase A-regulated transcriptional activator. We propose that CBP may participate in cAMP-regulated gene expression by interacting with the activated phosphorylated form of CREB.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Antioxid Redox Signal
                Antioxid. Redox Signal
                ars
                Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
                Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers (140 Huguenot Street, 3rd FloorNew Rochelle, NY 10801USA )
                1523-0864
                1557-7716
                10 December 2018
                24 October 2018
                24 October 2018
                : 29
                : 17
                : 1727-1745
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory , Cold Spring Harbor, New York.
                [ 2 ]Lustgarten Foundation Pancreatic Cancer Research Laboratory , Cold Spring Harbor, New York.
                Author notes
                Address correspondence to: Dr. David A. Tuveson, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724 dtuveson@ 123456cshl.edu
                Article
                10.1089/ars.2017.7342
                10.1089/ars.2017.7342
                6208165
                28899199
                © Claudia Tonelli et al., 2017; Published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

                This Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 195, Pages: 19
                Product
                Categories
                Forum Review Articles NRF-2 (Ed. Donna Zhang)

                nrf2, transcription, antioxidant response

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