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Prostate Cancer Mortality-To-Incidence Ratios Are Associated with Cancer Care Disparities in 35 Countries

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      The variation in mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) among countries reflects the clinical outcomes and the available interventions for colorectal cancer treatments. The association between MIR of prostate cancer and cancer care disparities among countries is an interesting issue that is rarely investigated. For the present study, cancer incidence and mortality rates were obtained from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. The rankings and total expenditures on health of various countries were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO). The association between variables was analyzed by linear regression analyses. In this study, we estimated the role of MIRs from 35 countries that had a prostate cancer incidence greater than 5,000 cases per year. As expected, high prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates were observed in more developed regions, such as Europe and the Americas. However, the MIRs were 2.5 times higher in the less developed regions. Regarding the association between MIR and cancer care disparities, countries with good WHO ranking and high total expenditures on health/gross domestic product (GDP) were significant correlated with low MIR. The MIR variation for prostate cancer correlates with cancer care disparities among countries further support the role of cancer care disparities in clinical outcome.

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      Most cited references 17

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      Global cancer statistics, 2012.

      Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly applying effective prevention measures, such as tobacco control, vaccination, and the use of early detection tests. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
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        The Global Burden of Cancer 2013.

        Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies.
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          Prostate cancer.

          Much progress has been made in research for prostate cancer in the past decade. There is now greater understanding for the genetic basis of familial prostate cancer with identification of rare but high-risk mutations (eg, BRCA2, HOXB13) and low-risk but common alleles (77 identified so far by genome-wide association studies) that could lead to targeted screening of patients at risk. This is especially important because screening for prostate cancer based on prostate-specific antigen remains controversial due to the high rate of overdiagnosis and unnecessary prostate biopsies, despite evidence that it reduces mortality. Classification of prostate cancer into distinct molecular subtypes, including mutually exclusive ETS-gene-fusion-positive and SPINK1-overexpressing, CHD1-loss cancers, could allow stratification of patients for different management strategies. Presently, men with localised disease can have very different prognoses and treatment options, ranging from observation alone through to radical surgery, with few good-quality randomised trials to inform on the best approach for an individual patient. The survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer progressing on androgen-deprivation therapy (castration-resistant prostate cancer) has improved substantially. In addition to docetaxel, which has been used for more than a decade, in the past 4 years five new drugs have shown efficacy with improvements in overall survival leading to licensing for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Because of this rapid change in the therapeutic landscape, no robust data exist to inform on the selection of patients for a specific treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer or the best sequence of administration. Moreover, the high cost of the newer drugs limits their widespread use in several countries. Data from continuing clinical and translational research are urgently needed to improve, and, crucially, to personalise management.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Department of Urology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital , Taichung, Taiwan
            [2 ]School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University , Taichung, Taiwan
            [3 ]Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University , Taichung, Taiwan
            [4 ]Department of Medical Education, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital , Taichung, Taiwan
            [5 ]Department of Surgical Pathology, Changhua Christian Hospital , Changhua, Taiwan
            [6 ]Department of Medical Technology, Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management , Miaoli, Taiwan
            [7 ]Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology and Drug Discovery, Taipei Medical University , Taiwan.
            Author notes

            These authors contributed equally to this work.

            Sci Rep
            Sci Rep
            Scientific Reports
            Nature Publishing Group
            04 January 2017
            : 7
            5209738 srep40003 10.1038/srep40003
            Copyright © 2017, The Author(s)

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