The sole record of the genus Pseudephemerum recorded from Brazil consists of the type
specimen of Ephemerella caldensis Müll.Hal., which is currently a synonym of P. nitidum
(Hedw.) Loeske. While conducting a revision of theDitrichaceae from Brazil, several
specimens of Pleuridium were evaluated that proved to be this species, and thus, after
154 years, we rediscovered Pseudephemerum nitidum in Brazil. In the most recent checklists
of Brazilian mosses, this species was excluded for lack of knowledge. This is the
second record in Brazil and the third in South America.