Two patients, a 47-year-old woman suffering from chronic renal failure, hyper- uricemia and gout, and her 26-year-old son with hyperuricemia and chronic renal failure, are described. The father and two siblings of the woman had died of chronic renal failure. Both patients had a markedly reduced fractional excretion of urate, which was significantly increased by both benzbromarone and probenecid. A renal biopsy of the son revealed an unspecific chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy. By light microscopy, many proximal tubular epithelial cells showed signs of apoptosis, which was confirmed with the specific TUNEL assay. We propose a hypothesis based on a gain-of-function mutation of the luminal anion exchanger of the proximal tubulus to explain reduced uric acid excretion, dominant inheritance and apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells in this rare disease. Treatment with a combination of allopurinol to reduce the renal urate load and benzbromarone to block the tubular anion exchanger and normalize fractional uric acid excretion is suggested.