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      Toxoplasma gondii infection and toxoplasmosis in North Africa: a review Translated title: Infection par Toxoplasma gondii et toxoplasmose en Afrique du Nord : synthèse Translated title: الاصابة بالطفيلي توكسوبلازما غوندي ( Toxoplasma gondii ) وبداء المقوسات في شمال إفريقيا : توليف

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          Abstract

          Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis caused by an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. The disease is distributed worldwide and can affect all warm-blooded vertebrates, including humans. The present review aimed to collect, compile and summarize the data on the prevalence of T. gondii infection in humans and animals in the five North African countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt). Published data from national and international databases were used. Distribution patterns and risk factors for T. gondii infection are discussed, focusing on biotic and abiotic factors. This review is a comprehensive epidemiological analysis of T. gondii infection in North Africa and will therefore be a useful tool for researchers. It can also be used to propose or enhance appropriate national toxoplasmosis control programs.

          Translated abstract

          La toxoplasmose est une zoonose importante causée par un protozoaire parasite intracellulaire obligatoire, Toxoplasma gondii. La maladie est répandue dans le monde entier, chez tous les vertébrés à sang chaud, y compris les humains. La présente étude visait à collecter, compiler et résumer les données sur la prévalence de l’infection par T. gondii chez l’homme et les animaux dans les cinq pays d’Afrique du Nord (Maroc, Algérie, Tunisie, Libye et Égypte). Les données publiées dans des bases de données nationales et internationales ont été utilisées. Les schémas de distribution et les facteurs de risque d’infection par T. gondii sont discutés, en se concentrant sur les facteurs biotiques et abiotiques. Cette synthèse est une analyse épidémiologique complète de l’infection par T. gondii en Afrique du Nord et sera donc un outil intéressant pour les chercheurs. Elle peut également être utilisée pour proposer ou renforcer des programmes nationaux appropriés de contrôle de la toxoplasmose.

          Translated abstract

          داء المقوسات هو مرض مشترك هام يسببه طفيلي وحيد الخلية اجبارى داخل خلوى، توكسوبلازما غوندي ( Toxoplasma gondii ). تنتشر هذه الاصابة في جميع أنحاء العالم وعند جميع الفقريات ذوات الدم الحار بما في ذالك الانسان. تهدف هذه الدراسة الببليوغرافية إلى جمع وتصنيف وتلخيص البيانات الحالية حول نسبة الاصابة بالطفيلي توكسوبلازما غوندي ( Toxoplasma gondii ) لدى الانسان والحيوان في بلدان شمال إفريقيا الخمسة (المغرب والجزائر وتونس وليبيا ومصر) .تم استعمال المعلومات المنشورة بقاعدات البيانات الوطنية و العالمية كما تمت مناقشة أنماط التوزيع وعوامل خطر الاصابة بالطفيلي توكسوبلازما غوندي ( Toxoplasma gondii ) مع التركيز على العوامل الحياتية و الغير حياتية.

          تمثل هذه الدراسة تحليلاً وبائياً شاملاً للإصابة بالطفيلي توكسوبلازما غوندي ( Toxoplasma gondii ) في شمال إفريقيا. وبذلك فإن هذه الدراسة هي أداة مفيدة للباحثين. كما يمكن استعمالها كي يتم اقتراح او تعزيز برامج وطنية مناسبة لمكافحة داء المقوسات.

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          Most cited references120

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          Toxoplasmosis snapshots: global status of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence and implications for pregnancy and congenital toxoplasmosis.

          Toxoplasma gondii's importance for humans refers mainly to primary infection during pregnancy, resulting in abortion/stillbirth or congenital toxoplasmosis. The authors sought to evaluate the current global status of T. gondii seroprevalence and its correlations with risk factors, environmental and socioeconomic parameters. Literature published during the last decade on toxoplasmosis seroprevalence, in women who were pregnant or of childbearing age, was retrieved. A total of 99 studies were eligible; a further 36 studies offered seroprevalence data from regions/countries for which no data on pregnancy/childbearing age were available. Foci of high prevalence exist in Latin America, parts of Eastern/Central Europe, the Middle East, parts of south-east Asia and Africa. Regional seroprevalence variations relate to individual subpopulations' religious and socioeconomic practices. A trend towards lower seroprevalence is observed in many European countries and the United States of America (USA). There is no obvious climate-related gradient, excluding North and Latin America. Immigration has affected local prevalence in certain countries. We further sought to recognise specific risk factors related to seropositivity; however, such risk factors are not reported systematically. Population awareness may affect recognition of said risks. Global toxoplasmosis seroprevalence is continuingly evolving, subject to regional socioeconomic parameters and population habits. Awareness of these seroprevalence trends, particularly in the case of women of childbearing age, may allow proper public health policies to be enforced, targeting in particular seronegative women of childbearing age in high seroprevalence areas.
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            Structures of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, bradyzoites, and sporozoites and biology and development of tissue cysts.

            Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent world-wide in animals and humans. This paper reviews the life cycle; the structure of tachyzoites, bradyzoites, oocysts, sporocysts, sporozoites and enteroepithelial stages of T. gondii; and the mode of penetration of T. gondii. The review provides a detailed account of the biology of tissue cysts and bradyzoites including in vivo and in vitro development, methods of separation from host tissue, tissue cyst rupture, and relapse. The mechanism of in vivo and in vitro stage conversion from sporozoites to tachyzoites to bradyzoites and from bradyzoites to tachyzoites to bradyzoites is also discussed.
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              History of the discovery of the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii.

              J Dubey (2009)
              It has been 100 years since the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii in 1908. Its full life cycle was not discovered until 1970 when it was found that it is a coccidian parasite of cats with all non-feline warm blooded animals (including humans) as intermediate hosts. The discovery of the environmentally resistant stage of the parasite, the oocyst, made it possible to explain its worldwide prevalence. In the present paper, events associated with the discovery of its life cycle are recalled.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2019
                15 February 2019
                : 26
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2019/01 )
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Univ. Manouba, École Nationale de Médecine Vétérinaire de Sidi Thabet 2020 Sidi Thabet Tunisia
                [2 ] Université des Frères Mentouri, Constantine 1, Institut des Sciences Vétérinaires Route de Batna El Khroub 25100 Constantine Algérie
                [3 ] Department of Animal Medicine (Infectious Diseases), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University 71526 Assiut Egypt
                [4 ] International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) P.O. Box, 950764 Amman 11195 Jordan
                [5 ] Laboratoire de Parasitologie Médicale, Biotechnologie et Biomolécules, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Université Tunis El Manar BPO 74 1002 Tunis Tunisia
                [6 ] International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) P.O. Box 5689 Addis Ababa Ethiopia
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: gharbim2000@ 123456yahoo.fr
                Article
                parasite180115 10.1051/parasite/2019006
                10.1051/parasite/2019006
                6376878
                30767889
                764d0ef4-6d39-415e-bb83-671423025d06
                © Rouatbi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2019

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 14 August 2018
                : 01 February 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 130, Pages: 20
                Categories
                Review Article

                toxoplasma gondii,north africa,humans,animals
                toxoplasma gondii, north africa, humans, animals

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