Radix Scutellariae is the dried root of the medicinal plant Scutellariae baicalensis Georgi. It exhibits a variety of therapeutic effects and has a long history of application in traditional formulations as well as in modern herbal medications. It has been confirmed that flavonoids are the most abundant constituents and induce these therapeutic effects. Six flavones are proven to be the major bioactive flavones in Radix Scutellariae existing in the forms of aglycones (baicalein, wogonin, oroxylin A) and glycosides (baicalin, wogonoside, oroxylin A-7-glucuronide). All six flavones are pharmacologically active and show great potential in the treatment of inflammation, cancers and virus-related diseases. The current review covers the preparation of the herb Radix Scutellariae, quantification of its major bioactive ingredients, and pharmacological effects of the proposed six bioactive flavones. In addition, this review summarizes the pharmacokinetic profiles of the bioactive flavones reported so far that could be used for further improvement of their pharmacokinetic study. Moreover, due to abundant co-occurring bioactive components in Radix Scutellariae, our review further documents the pharmacokinetic interactions among them. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.