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      Reactive oxygen species, inflammation and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis

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          Abstract

          Calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stones are formed attached to Randall’s plaques (RPs) or Randall’s plugs. Mechanisms involved in the formation and growth are poorly understood. It is our hypothesis that stone formation is a form of pathological biomineralization or ectopic calcification. Pathological calcification and plaque formation in the body is triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the development of oxidative stress (OS). This review explores clinical and experimental data in support of ROS involvement in the formation of CaOx kidney stones. Under normal conditions the production of ROS is tightly controlled, increasing when and where needed. Results of clinical and experimental studies show that renal epithelial exposure to high oxalate and crystals of CaOx/calcium phosphate (CaP) generates excess ROS, causing injury and inflammation. Major markers of OS and inflammation are detectable in urine of stone patients as well as rats with experimentally induced CaOx nephrolithiasis. Antioxidant treatments reduce crystal and oxalate induced injury in tissue culture and animal models. Significantly lower serum levels of antioxidants, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthine have been found in individuals with a history of kidney stones. A diet rich in antioxidants has been shown to reduce stone episodes. ROS regulate crystal formation, growth and retention through the timely production of crystallization modulators. In the presence of abnormal calcium, citrate, oxalate, and/or phosphate, however, there is an overproduction of ROS and a decrease in the antioxidant capacity resulting in OS, renal injury and inflammation. Cellular degradation products in the urine promote crystallization in the tubular lumen at a faster rate thus blocking the tubule and plugging the tubular openings at the papillary tips forming Randall’s plugs. Renal epithelial cells lining the loops of Henle/collecting ducts may become osteogenic, producing membrane vesicles at the basal side. In addition endothelial cells lining the blood vessels may also become osteogenic producing membrane vesicles. Calcification of the vesicles gives rise to RPs. The growth of the RP’s is sustained by mineralization of collagen laid down as result of inflammation and fibrosis.

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          Most cited references 238

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          Phosphate regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification.

          Vascular calcification is a common finding in atherosclerosis and a serious problem in diabetic and uremic patients. Because of the correlation of hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification, the ability of extracellular inorganic phosphate levels to regulate human aortic smooth muscle cell (HSMC) culture mineralization in vitro was examined. HSMCs cultured in media containing normal physiological levels of inorganic phosphate (1.4 mmol/L) did not mineralize. In contrast, HSMCs cultured in media containing phosphate levels comparable to those seen in hyperphosphatemic individuals (>1.4 mmol/L) showed dose-dependent increases in mineral deposition. Mechanistic studies revealed that elevated phosphate treatment of HSMCs also enhanced the expression of the osteoblastic differentiation markers osteocalcin and Cbfa-1. The effects of elevated phosphate on HSMCs were mediated by a sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (NPC), as indicated by the ability of the specific NPC inhibitor phosphonoformic acid, to dose dependently inhibit phosphate-induced calcium deposition as well as osteocalcin and Cbfa-1 gene expression. With the use of polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analyses, the NPC in HSMCs was identified as Pit-1 (Glvr-1), a member of the novel type III NPCs. These data suggest that elevated phosphate may directly stimulate HSMCs to undergo phenotypic changes that predispose to calcification and offer a novel explanation of the phenomenon of vascular calcification under hyperphosphatemic conditions. The full text of this article is available at http://www.circresaha.org.
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            A glimpse of various pathogenetic mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy.

            Diabetic nephropathy is a well-known complication of diabetes and is a leading cause of chronic renal failure in the Western world. It is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix in the glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments and by the thickening and hyalinization of intrarenal vasculature. The various cellular events and signaling pathways activated during diabetic nephropathy may be similar in different cell types. Such cellular events include excessive channeling of glucose intermediaries into various metabolic pathways with generation of advanced glycation products, activation of protein kinase C, increased expression of transforming growth factor β and GTP-binding proteins, and generation of reactive oxygen species. In addition to these metabolic and biochemical derangements, changes in the intraglomerular hemodynamics, modulated in part by local activation of the renin-angiotensin system, compound the hyperglycemia-induced injury. Events involving various intersecting pathways occur in most cell types of the kidney.
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              Epithelial to mesenchymal transition in renal fibrogenesis: pathologic significance, molecular mechanism, and therapeutic intervention.

               Youhua Liu (2003)
              Mature tubular epithelial cells in adult kidney can undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a phenotypic conversion that is fundamentally linked to the pathogenesis of renal interstitial fibrosis. Emerging evidence indicates that a large proportion of interstitial fibroblasts are actually originated from tubular epithelial cells via EMT in diseased kidney. Moreover, selective blockade of EMT in a mouse genetic model dramatically reduces fibrotic lesions after obstructive injury, underscoring a definite importance of EMT in renal fibrogenesis. Tubular EMT is proposed as an orchestrated, highly regulated process that consists of four key steps: (1) loss of epithelial cell adhesion; (2) de novo alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and actin reorganization; (3) disruption of tubular basement membrane; and (4) enhanced cell migration and invasion. Of the many factors that regulate EMT in different ways, transforming growth factor-beta1 is the most potent inducer that is capable of initiating and completing the entire EMT course, whereas hepatocyte growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein-7 act as EMT inhibitors both in vitro and in vivo. Multiple intracellular signaling pathways have been implicated in mediating EMT, in which Smad/integrin-linked kinase may play a central role. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive review of recent advances on understanding the pathologic significance, molecular mechanism, and therapeutic intervention of EMT in the setting of chronic renal fibrosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Transl Androl Urol
                Transl Androl Urol
                TAU
                Translational Andrology and Urology
                AME Publishing Company
                2223-4691
                September 2014
                September 2014
                : 3
                : 3
                : 256-276
                Affiliations
                Department of Pathology and Department of Urology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Saeed R. Khan. Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Box 100275, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA. Email: khan@ 123456pathology.ufl.edu .
                Article
                tau-03-03-256
                10.3978/j.issn.2223-4683.2014.06.04
                4220551
                25383321
                2014 Translational Andrology and Urology. All rights reserved.
                Categories
                Review Article

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