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      Knee arthrodesis.

      The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
      Arthrodesis, instrumentation, Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee, Bone Nails, Bone Transplantation, External Fixators, Fibula, transplantation, Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary, Humans, Joint Instability, etiology, Knee Joint, surgery, Prosthesis-Related Infections, Transplantation, Homologous

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          Arthrodesis is one of the last options available to obtain a stable, painless knee in a patient with a damaged knee joint that is not amenable to reconstructive measures. Common indications for knee arthrodesis include failed total knee arthroplasty, periarticular tumor, posttraumatic arthritis, and chronic sepsis. The primary contraindications to knee fusion are bilateral involvement or an ipsilateral hip arthrodesis. A variety of techniques has been described, including external fixation, internal fixation by compression plates, intramedullary fixation through the knee with a modular nail, and antegrade nailing through the piriformis fossa. Allograft or autograft may be necessary to restore lost bone stock or to augment fusion. For the carefully selected patient with realistic expectations, knee arthrodesis may relieve pain and obviate the need for additional surgery or extensive postoperative rehabilitation.

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