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      Cytokine-Mediated or Direct Effects of Thymulin on the Nervous System as Assessed by Pain-Related Behavior

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          Abstract

          Thymulin is a thymic hormone with known immunomodulatory activities. Recent evidence has indicated a signaling role for this peptide in the interaction between the immune, endocrine and the nervous system. In this report, we review recent experimental findings on the analgesic actions of thymulin (high doses) in rats with endotoxin-induced localized inflammation and the hyperalgesic actions (low doses) of this peptide in intact animals. These actions involve both proinflammatory cytokines and PGE<sub>2</sub>. The possibility of a dual role played by thymulin as a hormone that might also involve a direct effect on the nervous system is discussed.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Nerve growth factor contributes to the generation of inflammatory sensory hypersensitivity.

          Experimental inflammation produced by an intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant results in local sensory hypersensitivity and up-regulates the neuropeptides substance P and calcitonin gene related peptide in the primary sensory neurons innervating the inflamed tissue. The inflammation also elevates nerve growth factor levels in the skin. Systemic administration of anti-NGF neutralizing antibodies prevent the behavioral sensitivity, the up-regulation of neuropeptides and the inflammation-induced expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in dorsal horn neurons, without modifying swelling and erythema. Elevation of the neurotrophin NGF in the periphery is a major contributor, therefore, of inflammatory pain.
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            Interleukin-1 beta as a potent hyperalgesic agent antagonized by a tripeptide analogue.

            Interleukin-1 (IL-1) describes two inflammatory proteins, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta, produced by activated macrophages and other cell types and encoded by two genes. Their amino acid sequences have only 26% similarity, but their biological activities are comparable, with a few exceptions; indeed, both molecules appear to act at the same receptor. As IL-1 release prostaglandins which sensitize nociceptors in man and in experimental animals, we tested IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta in rats for hyperalgesic (nociceptive) activity. Our results show that IL-1 beta given systemically is an extremely potent hyperalgesic agent with a probable peripheral site of action; IL-1 alpha is approximately 3,000 times less active than IL-1 beta. We have delineated the region of IL-1 beta mediating the hyperalgesic effect and developed an analgesic tripeptide analogue of IL-1 beta which antagonizes hyperalgesia evoked by IL-1 beta and by the inflammatory agent carrageenan.
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              Increased content and transport of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in sensory nerves innervating inflamed tissue: evidence for a regulatory function of nerve growth factor in vivo.

              The responses of sensory neuropeptides during unilateral, Freund's adjuvant-induced, paw inflammation in the rat were examined. After five days of inflammation, the substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide content in the sciatic nerve supplying the inflamed paw were increased by 60-75% when compared with the contralateral side. At this time-point, there was also a 30-40% increase in the substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide content of the dorsal root ganglia (L4-L6), and a 40% increase in the calcitonin gene-related peptide content of the L4-L6 segments of the dorsal spinal cord on the inflammation side. In the dorsal root ganglia, calcitonin gene-related peptide content was also increased as early as 12 h and 48 h after induction of paw inflammation. On day 5 of inflammation, the axonal transport of both sensory neuropeptides towards the inflamed paw, as determined after sciatic nerve ligation, was also markedly increased as compared with the control side. Despite this increased transport, the amount of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide present in the inflamed paw itself was either reduced or remained unchanged from day 1 through to day 5 of inflammation pointing towards reduced storage and increased release of the peptides in the inflamed tissue. Nerve growth factor content was markedly increased in the sciatic nerve of the inflamed paw with a peak of +136% at time-point 24 h after induction of inflammation. When rats were systemically treated with anti-nerve growth factor serum, the increase in neuropeptide content in the sciatic nerve of the inflamed paw (day 5) was prevented. On the other hand, local injections of nerve growth factor for 5 days into a noninflamed paw were able to induce an increase in substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide content in the supplying sciatic nerve. These findings point towards a regulatory function for nerve growth factor in vivo in the stimulation of sensory neuropeptide synthesis during prolonged inflammatory processes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-6769-5
                978-3-318-00356-7
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                1999
                April 1999
                08 January 1999
                : 6
                : 1-2
                : 39-44
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences;Departments of bPhysiology and cHuman Morphology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Lebanon
                Article
                26362 Neuroimmunomodulation 1999;6:39–44
                10.1159/000026362
                9876233
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 34, Pages: 6
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