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      Effect of Vasopressin on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in ADPKD Patients during V2 Receptor Antagonism

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          Abstract

          Background: Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are treated with a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist (V2RA) to slow disease progression. This drug increases vasopressin considerably in these patients with already elevated baseline levels. Vasopressin is known to stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis through V1 and V3 receptor activation. It is unknown whether this increase in vasopressin during V2RA treatment affects glucocorticoid production. Methods: Twenty-seven ADPKD patients were studied on and off treatment with a V2RA and compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls and IgA nephropathy patients, the latter also matched for kidney function. Vasopressin was measured by its surrogate copeptin. Twenty-four-hour urinary excretions of cortisol, cortisone, tetrahydrocortisone, tetrahydrocortisol, allotetrahydrocortisol, and the total glucocorticoid pool were measured. Results: At baseline, ADPKD patients demonstrated a higher copeptin concentration in comparison with healthy controls, while urinary excretion of cortisol and cortisone was lower (medians of 0.23 vs. 0.34 μmol/24 h, p = 0.007, and 0.29 vs. 0.53 μmol/24 h, p < 0.001, respectively). There were no differences in cortisol and cortisone excretion compared to IgA nephropathy patients. Cortisol, cortisone, and total glucocorticoid excretions correlated with kidney function ( R = 0.37, 0.58, and 0.19, respectively; all p < 0.05). Despite that V2RA treatment resulted in a 3-fold increase in copeptin, only cortisone excretion increased (median of 0.44 vs. baseline 0.29 μmol/24 h, p < 0.001), whereas no changes in cortisol or total glucocorticoid excretion were observed. Conclusions: Increased concentration of vasopressin in ADPKD patients at baseline and during V2RA treatment does not result in activation of the HPA axis. The impaired glucocorticoid production in these patients is related to their degree of kidney function impairment.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

          Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most prevalent, potentially lethal, monogenic disorder. It is associated with large interfamilial and intrafamilial variability, which can be explained to a large extent by its genetic heterogeneity and modifier genes. An increased understanding of the disorder's underlying genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms and a better appreciation of its progression and systemic manifestations have laid out the foundation for the development of clinical trials and potentially effective treatments.
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            Vasopressin V1a and V1b receptors: from molecules to physiological systems.

            The neurohypophysial hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) is essential for a wide range of physiological functions, including water reabsorption, cardiovascular homeostasis, hormone secretion, and social behavior. These and other actions of AVP are mediated by at least three distinct receptor subtypes: V1a, V1b, and V2. Although the antidiuretic action of AVP and V2 receptor in renal distal tubules and collecting ducts is relatively well understood, recent years have seen an increasing understanding of the physiological roles of V1a and V1b receptors. The V1a receptor is originally found in the vascular smooth muscle and the V1b receptor in the anterior pituitary. Deletion of V1a or V1b receptor genes in mice revealed that the contributions of these receptors extend far beyond cardiovascular or hormone-secreting functions. Together with extensively developed pharmacological tools, genetically altered rodent models have advanced the understanding of a variety of AVP systems. Our report reviews the findings in this important field by covering a wide range of research, from the molecular physiology of V1a and V1b receptors to studies on whole animals, including gene knockout/knockdown studies.
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              Cardiovascular abnormalities in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

              Cardiovascular problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Hypertension is a common early symptom of ADPKD, and occurs in approximately 60% of patients before renal function has become impaired. Hypertension is associated with an increased rate of progression to end-stage renal disease and is the most important potentially treatable variable in ADPKD. Left ventricular hypertrophy, which is a powerful, independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, also occurs frequently in patients with ADPKD. Both hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy have important roles in cardiovascular complications in these individuals. Moreover, biventricular diastolic dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, increased carotid intima-media thickness, and impaired coronary flow velocity reserve are present even in young patients with ADPKD who have normal blood pressure and well-preserved renal function. These findings suggest that cardiovascular involvement starts very early in the course of ADPKD. Intracranial and extracranial aneurysms and cardiac valvular defects are other potential cardiovascular problems in patients with ADPKD. Early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, with drugs that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, has the potential to decrease the cardiovascular complications and slow the progression of renal disease in ADPKD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2020
                December 2020
                04 November 2020
                : 51
                : 11
                : 861-870
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
                bDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
                cDepartment of Endocrinology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                *Judith E. Heida, Department of Nephrology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, NL–9713 GZ Groningen (The Netherlands), j.e.heida@umcg.nl
                Article
                511000 Am J Nephrol 2020;51:861–870
                10.1159/000511000
                33147589
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Patient-Oriented, Translational Research: Research Article

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