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      Risk factors for atherosclerosis in an elderly out patient population in the City of São Paulo

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVE: To analyze in out clinic elderly patients of both sexes for the prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerosis and study their association with the complications of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Five hundred and sixteen outpatients, 152 men and 364 women, 60 years or older, were studied. The prevalences of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking and obesity were determined in both sexes and compared using the chi-square test. The association between these factors and the presence of atherosclerotic complications was analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: The comparative analysis of the factors in both sexes showed that hypertension, total cholesterol > or = 240mg/dL, LDL-cholesterol > or = 160mg/dL, and body mass index >27.5 were more frequent among women, but HDL-cholesterol <35mg/dL and cigarette smoking were more frequent among men, and no difference occurred between sexes in relation to the frequency of triglycerides > or = 250mg/dL and diabetes mellitus. After adjustment of the variables in the regression model, we observed that in the total of elderly patients, risk factors for complications of atherosclerosis were: triglycerides > or = 250mg/dL, hypertension, and male sex. Among men, the risk factors were: LDL-cholesterol > or = 160mg/dL, diabetes mellitus, HDL-cholesterol <35mg/dL and hypertension. Among women, the risk factors were: tryglicerides > or = 250mg/dL and hypertension. CONCLUSION: The results showed that, in the elderly, the risk factors for atherosclerosis persist, but with different behaviors between men and women. The study suggests that the relative importance of the risk factors can change with the aging process.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Lipids, diabetes, and coronary heart disease: insights from the Framingham Study.

          Both risk factors and the incidence of cardiovascular disease are higher in diabetic patients. Total serum cholesterol has the same impact on coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence in diabetic patients as in nondiabetic individuals. Abnormal blood lipids in diabetic patients include elevated very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and triglyceride and reduced levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). These are associated with obesity and precede the onset of diabetes. Diabetes increases the risk of all clinical manifestations of CHD, has a greater impact in women, and predisposes to cardiac failure and fatal outcome. In men, it predisposes to silent myocardial infarctions. CHD risk reduction in the diabetic patient requires multifactorial control. In evaluating the lipid-induced CHD risk, the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is not as valuable as the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio, which is the most reliable criterion. Triglyceride levels make no independent contribution. Most CHD preventive measures, including weight control, exercise, avoidance of cigarettes, and improvement of glucose tolerance also increase HDL cholesterol, reduced levels of which are chiefly responsible for the poor LDL/HDL ratio in diabetics. Weight control merits a high priority because of its favorable influence on the lipid profile, glucose tolerance, and blood pressure.
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            Cigarette smoking and levels of adrenal androgens in postmenopausal women.

            An antiestrogenic effect of cigarette smoking has been suggested, principally on the basis of data on premenopausal women. We examined the relation between cigarette smoking and endogenous sex-hormone levels in a population of 233 white, postmenopausal women 60 to 79 years of age. Current cigarette smokers had significantly higher mean plasma levels of the adrenal androgens dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and androstenedione than nonsmokers. Mean levels for smokers and nonsmokers were 3.1 mumol per liter (116 micrograms per deciliter) and 2.3 mumol per liter (86 micrograms per deciliter), respectively (P less than 0.001), for dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and 27.8 nmol per liter (797 pg per milliliter) and 22.5 nmol per liter (643 pg per milliliter), respectively (P = 0.002), for androstenedione. A dose-response relation was apparent for these hormones; mean plasma levels increased concomitantly with cigarette consumption. The differences in hormone levels remained after adjustment for age and body-mass index. Mean levels of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and sex-hormone-binding globulin did not differ between smokers and nonsmokers. These results suggest that the possible decreased risk of breast and endometrial cancer associated with cigarette smoking may not be mediated through lower levels of endogenous estrogen, at least in postmenopausal women, and they raise questions about the role of androgens in disease mechanisms in older populations.
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              Quantitative determination of triglyceride using GPO-PAP method

               P Trinder,  R Trinder (1969)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                abc
                Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
                Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia - SBC (São Paulo )
                1678-4170
                March 2000
                : 74
                : 3
                : 189-196
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
                Article
                S0066-782X2000000300001
                10.1590/S0066-782X2000000300001
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                CARDIAC & CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMS

                Cardiovascular Medicine

                risk factors, atherosclerosis, elderly

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