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      Combined isosorbide dinitrate and ibuprofen as a novel therapy for muscular dystrophies: evidence from Phase I studies in healthy volunteers

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          Abstract

          We designed two Phase I studies that assessed healthy volunteers in order to evaluate the safety and to optimize the dosing of the combination of the drugs isosorbide dinitrate, a nitric oxide donor, and ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug. We designed these studies with the aim of designing a Phase II trial to evaluate the drugs’ efficacy in patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy. For the first trial, ISOFEN1, a single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, active control, three-treatment cross-over study, was aimed at comparing the pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen 200 mg and isosorbide dinitrate 20 mg when given alone and concomitantly. The pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen given alone versus ibuprofen given concomitantly with isosorbide dinitrate were similar, as documented by the lack of statistically significant differences in the main drug’s pharmacokinetic parameters (time to maximal concentration [T max], maximal concentration [C max], area under the curve [AUC] 0–t, and AUC 0–∞). Similarly, we found that the coadministration of ibuprofen did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of isosorbide dinitrate. No issues of safety were detected. The second trial, ISOFEN2, was a single-site, dose titration study that was designed to select the maximum tolerated dose for isosorbide dinitrate when coadministered with ibuprofen. Eighteen out of the 19 enrolled subjects tolerated the treatment well, and they completed the study at the highest dose of isosorbide dinitrate applied (80 mg/day). One subject voluntarily decided to reduce the dose of isosorbide dinitrate from 80 mg to 60 mg. The treatment-related adverse events recorded during the study were, for the large majority, episodes of headache that remitted spontaneously in 0.5–1 hour – a known side effect of isosorbide dinitrate. These studies demonstrate that the combination of isosorbide dinitrate and ibuprofen does not lead to pharmacokinetic interactions between the two drugs; they also demonstrate that the combination of isosorbide dinitrate and ibuprofen has optimal tolerability and safety profiles that are similar to those previously reported for isosorbide dinitrate and ibuprofen given alone.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Mitochondrial biogenesis in mammals: the role of endogenous nitric oxide.

          Nitric oxide was found to trigger mitochondrial biogenesis in cells as diverse as brown adipocytes and 3T3-L1, U937, and HeLa cells. This effect of nitric oxide was dependent on guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) and was mediated by the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha, a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Moreover, the mitochondrial biogenesis induced by exposure to cold was markedly reduced in brown adipose tissue of endothelial nitric oxide synthase null-mutant (eNOS-/-) mice, which had a reduced metabolic rate and accelerated weight gain as compared to wild-type mice. Thus, a nitric oxide-cGMP-dependent pathway controls mitochondrial biogenesis and body energy balance.
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            A nitric oxide synthase transgene ameliorates muscular dystrophy in mdx mice

            Dystrophin-deficient muscles experience large reductions in expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which suggests that NO deficiency may influence the dystrophic pathology. Because NO can function as an antiinflammatory and cytoprotective molecule, we propose that the loss of NOS from dystrophic muscle exacerbates muscle inflammation and fiber damage by inflammatory cells. Analysis of transgenic mdx mice that were null mutants for dystrophin, but expressed normal levels of NO in muscle, showed that the normalization of NO production caused large reductions in macrophage concentrations in the mdx muscle. Expression of the NOS transgene in mdx muscle also prevented the majority of muscle membrane injury that is detectable in vivo, and resulted in large decreases in serum creatine kinase concentrations. Furthermore, our data show that mdx muscle macrophages are cytolytic at concentrations that occur in dystrophic, NOS-deficient muscle, but are not cytolytic at concentrations that occur in dystrophic mice that express the NOS transgene in muscle. Finally, our data show that antibody depletions of macrophages from mdx mice cause significant reductions in muscle membrane injury. Together, these findings indicate that macrophages promote injury of dystrophin-deficient muscle, and the loss of normal levels of NO production by dystrophic muscle exacerbates inflammation and membrane injury in muscular dystrophy.
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              microRNA-206 promotes skeletal muscle regeneration and delays progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in mice.

              Skeletal muscle injury activates adult myogenic stem cells, known as satellite cells, to initiate proliferation and differentiation to regenerate new muscle fibers. The skeletal muscle-specific microRNA miR-206 is upregulated in satellite cells following muscle injury, but its role in muscle regeneration has not been defined. Here, we show that miR-206 promotes skeletal muscle regeneration in response to injury. Genetic deletion of miR-206 in mice substantially delayed regeneration induced by cardiotoxin injury. Furthermore, loss of miR-206 accelerated and exacerbated the dystrophic phenotype in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We found that miR-206 acts to promote satellite cell differentiation and fusion into muscle fibers through suppressing a collection of negative regulators of myogenesis. Our findings reveal an essential role for miR-206 in satellite cell differentiation during skeletal muscle regeneration and indicate that miR-206 slows progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2014
                02 May 2014
                : 8
                : 411-419
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University Hospital “Luigi Sacco”, Università di Milano, Milan, Italy
                [2 ]Unit of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital “Luigi Sacco”, Milan, Italy
                [3 ]Scientific Institute, IRCCS Eugenio Medea, Bosisio Parini, Lecco, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Emilio Clementi, Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, Università di Milano, Via GB Grassi, 74-20157 Milan, Italy, Tel +39 025 031 9643, Fax +39 025 031 9646, Email emilio.clementi@ 123456unimi.it
                Article
                dddt-8-411
                10.2147/DDDT.S58803
                4018313
                © 2014 Cossu et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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