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      • Record: found
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      Primary Cilium-Dependent Signaling Mechanisms

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          Abstract

          Primary cilia are hair-like organelles and play crucial roles in vertebrate development, organogenesis, health, and many genetic disorders. A primary cilium is a mechano-sensory organelle that responds to mechanical stimuli in the micro-environment. A cilium is also a chemosensor that senses chemical signals surrounding a cell. The overall function of a cilium is therefore to act as a communication hub to transfer extracellular signals into intracellular responses. Although intracellular calcium has been one of the most studied signaling messengers that transmit extracellular signals into the cells, calcium signaling by various ion channels remains a topic of interest in the field. This may be due to a broad spectrum of cilia functions that are dependent on or independent of utilizing calcium as a second messenger. We therefore revisit and discuss the calcium-dependent and calcium-independent ciliary signaling pathways of Hedgehog, Wnt, PDGFR, Notch, TGF-β, mTOR, OFD1 autophagy, and other GPCR-associated signaling. All of these signaling pathways play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as in organ and embryonic development, cardiac functioning, planar cell polarity, transactivation, differentiation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, tissue homeostasis, and the immune response.

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          Most cited references 129

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          Wnt/β-catenin signaling and disease.

          The WNT signal transduction cascade controls myriad biological phenomena throughout development and adult life of all animals. In parallel, aberrant Wnt signaling underlies a wide range of pathologies in humans. In this Review, we provide an update of the core Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, discuss how its various components contribute to disease, and pose outstanding questions to be addressed in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Role of platelet-derived growth factors in physiology and medicine.

            Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors (PDGFRs) have served as prototypes for growth factor and receptor tyrosine kinase function for more than 25 years. Studies of PDGFs and PDGFRs in animal development have revealed roles for PDGFR-alpha signaling in gastrulation and in the development of the cranial and cardiac neural crest, gonads, lung, intestine, skin, CNS, and skeleton. Similarly, roles for PDGFR-beta signaling have been established in blood vessel formation and early hematopoiesis. PDGF signaling is implicated in a range of diseases. Autocrine activation of PDGF signaling pathways is involved in certain gliomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Paracrine PDGF signaling is commonly observed in epithelial cancers, where it triggers stromal recruitment and may be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, thereby affecting tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. PDGFs drive pathological mesenchymal responses in vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, restenosis, pulmonary hypertension, and retinal diseases, as well as in fibrotic diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, scleroderma, glomerulosclerosis, and cardiac fibrosis. We review basic aspects of the PDGF ligands and receptors, their developmental and pathological functions, principles of their pharmacological inhibition, and results using PDGF pathway-inhibitory or stimulatory drugs in preclinical and clinical contexts.
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              The complex world of WNT receptor signalling.

              30 years after the identification of WNTs, their signal transduction has become increasingly complex, with the discovery of more than 15 receptors and co-receptors in seven protein families. The recent discovery of three receptor classes for the R-spondin family of WNT agonists further adds to this complexity. What emerges is an intricate network of receptors that form higher-order ligand-receptor complexes routing downstream signalling. These are regulated both extracellularly by agonists such as R-spondin and intracellularly by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, proteolytic processing and endocytosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                28 October 2017
                November 2017
                : 18
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biomedical & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chapman University, Irvine, CA 92618, USA; rrpala@ 123456chapman.edu (R.P.); aloma112@ 123456mail.chapman.edu (N.A.)
                [2 ]Harry and Diane Rinker Health Science Campus, Chapman University, 9401 Jeronimo Road, Irvine, CA 92618-1908, USA
                [3 ]Department of Medicine, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92868, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: nauli@ 123456chapman.edu or snauli@ 123456uci.edu ; Tel.: +1-714-516-5480; Fax: +1-714-516-5481
                Article
                ijms-18-02272
                10.3390/ijms18112272
                5713242
                29143784
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology

                signaling, calcium, cilioplasm, cytoplasm, sensory function

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