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      Guidance on selected default values to be used by the EFSA Scientific Committee, Scientific Panels and Units in the absence of actual measured data : Guidance on default values to be used in the absence of measured data

      EFSA Journal

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Most cited references 14

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          Methodological characteristics of the national dietary surveys carried out in the European Union as included in the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database.

          In 2009 competent organisations in the European Union provided the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) with data from the most recent national dietary survey at the level of individuals' consumption. Twenty different Member States provided EFSA with data from 22 different national dietary surveys, with consumption figures for adults and, when available, for children. Member States' dietary data were assembled into the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. In this paper an overview of the methodologies and protocols employed in the different national dietary surveys is provided. Specifically, details about dietary assessment methods, interview administration, sampling design, portion size estimation, dietary software, evaluation of under-reporting and non-dietary information collected are described. This information is crucial to evaluate the level of accuracy of food consumption data and to anticipate and acknowledge the utmost important sources of heterogeneity of national databases included in the Comprehensive Database. The Comprehensive Database constitutes a unique resource for the estimation of consumption figures across the European Union and represents a useful tool to assess dietary exposure to hazardous substances and nutrient intake in Europe. Nevertheless, the many substantial methodological differences that characterise the Comprehensive Database are acknowledged and critically discussed.
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            Evolution of science-based uncertainty factors in noncancer risk assessment.

            The science behind the use of uncertainty factors has progressed considerably. Increased knowledge of inter- and intraspecies sensitivity, mechanisms of action, and detailed evaluation of data bases can support the use of data-derived uncertainty factors, which ultimately results in a risk assessment with greater confidence. Papers that highlight available data for each of several areas of uncertainty are discussed, indicating that choice of the appropriate factor requires scientific judgement on a case-by-case basis. Case studies from EPA and Health Canada risk values illustrate the use of data in chemical specific risk assessments to support the selection of uncertainty factors other than the default value of 10-fold. In the case studies, the types of data that have been used to support a change in the default value are explicitly reviewed, as well as why the data support a different uncertainty factor, how the uncertainty was reduced, and what assumptions have been satisfied or replaced. Incorporation of all available scientific data into the risk assessment process fosters increased research and ultimately reduces uncertainty. The results of this review support the use of data-derived uncertainty factors when appropriate scientific data are available.
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              Measured Consumption of Commercial Infant Food Products in German Infants: Results From the DONALD Study

              Commercial food products intended for infants form an important part of the diet. Such products are defined as special dietetic food by food legislation. However, quantitative consumption data in the context of the current European Community (EC) food regulations have not been available up to now.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EFSA Journal
                EFSA Journal
                Wiley-Blackwell
                18314732
                March 2012
                March 2012
                : 10
                : 3
                : 2579
                Article
                10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2579
                © 2012
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