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      Acromesomelic Dysplasia, Type Maroteaux: Impact of Long-Term (8 Years) High-Dose Growth Hormone Treatment on Growth Velocity and Final Height in 2 Siblings

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Acromesomelic dysplasia, type Maroteaux (AMDM) is a rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia, characterized by severe dwarfism and disproportionate limb shortening. It results from loss-of-function NPR2 mutations affecting the C-type natriuretic peptide receptor. Resistance to growth hormone (GH) action has previously been suggested. We describe outcomes of 2 siblings with AMDM after prolonged high-dose GH treatment. Patients/Methods: Two siblings (Pt-A and Pt-B; consanguineous parents) presented in early childhood with severe disproportionate short stature and radiological features of AMDM. Subsequent genetic testing identified a novel homozygous NPR2 mutation. GH provocation testing showed relatively high GH levels. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was ∼2 SD below age/sex-specific mean. High-dose GH (0.075 mg/kg/day) was started. Pre-GH height velocities were 3.7 (Pt-A) and 4.5 (Pt-B) cm/year. GH dose was adjusted to sustain serum IGF-1 towards +3 SDS for age/sex. Annualized height velocities for first 3 years on GH were 7.0, 5.4, and 4.7 cm/year for patient A and 9.4, 8.0, and 5.9 cm/year for patient B. Height gain during puberty was 10.6 (Pt-A) and 5.9 (Pt-B) cm. Final heights after 8.5 years of GH treatment were 130.5 cm (−6.57 SDS, Pt-A) and 134 cm (−4.58 SDS, Pt-B). Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of final height in patients with AMDM after long-term GH treatment. Our results confirm the finding of relative GH resistance in AMDM, which when overcome with high-dose GH treatment resulted in improved height SDS during childhood and adolescence and associated quality of life. The final height of our patients was significantly higher than average reported final height (120 cm) of AMDM patients.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Mutations in the transmembrane natriuretic peptide receptor NPR-B impair skeletal growth and cause acromesomelic dysplasia, type Maroteaux.

          The homodimeric transmembrane receptor natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B [also known as guanylate cyclase B, GC-B, and GUC2B]; gene name NPR2) produces cytoplasmic cyclic GMP from GTP on binding its extracellular ligand, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). CNP has previously been implicated in the regulation of skeletal growth in transgenic and knockout mice. The autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia known as "acromesomelic dysplasia, type Maroteaux" (AMDM) maps to an interval that contains NPR2. We sequenced DNA from 21 families affected by AMDM and found 4 nonsense mutations, 4 frameshift mutations, 2 splice-site mutations, and 11 missense mutations. Molecular modeling was used to examine the putative protein change brought about by each missense mutation. Three missense mutations were tested in a functional assay and were found to have markedly deficient guanylyl cyclase activity. We also found that obligate carriers of NPR2 mutations have heights that are below the mean for matched controls. We conclude that, although NPR-B is expressed in a number of tissues, its major role is in the regulation of skeletal growth.
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            Heterozygous mutations in natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPR2) are associated with short stature.

            C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is an important regulator of skeletal growth. Loss-of-function mutations affecting the CNP receptor natriuretic peptide receptor-B (gene NPR2) cause the autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia, acromesomelic dysplasia, Maroteaux type (AMDM). The phenotype of heterozygous carriers of NPR2 mutations is less clear. The objective of the study was to determine the phenotypic features of heterozygous carriers of NPR2 mutations. This was a case-control study from the general community. Thirty-nine members of a family in which one member has AMDM were studied. This was an observational study. The primary measure was stature, with the hypothesis that carriers have reduced stature compared with noncarriers. Sixteen family members were NPR2 mutation carriers. Height z-scores of these carriers were -1.8 +/- 1.1 (mean +/- sd), which was significantly less than the 23 noncarrier family members (-0.4 +/- 0.8, P < 0.0005) and the general population (P < 0.0005). However, there was no difference in body proportion between carriers and noncarriers. The proband with AMDM had low IGF-I levels and evidence of GH resistance, as well as very high plasma levels of CNP and its amino-terminal propeptide. Levels of these peptides were normal in the heterozygous carriers. We have shown that heterozygous mutations in NPR2 are associated with short stature. Assuming one in 700 people unknowingly carry an NPR2 mutation, our data suggest that approximately one in 30 individuals with idiopathic short stature are carriers of NPR2 mutations.
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              Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, and cancer risk: systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

              Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and its main binding protein, IGFBP-3, modulate cell growth and survival, and are thought to be important in tumour development. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I might be associated with an increased risk of cancer, whereas IGFBP-3 concentrations could be associated with a decreased cancer risk. We did a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of case-control studies, including studies nested in cohorts, of the association between concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and prostate, colorectal, premenopausal and postmenopausal breast, and lung cancer. Study-specific dose-response slopes were obtained by relating the natural log of odds ratios for different exposure levels to blood concentrations normalised to a percentile scale. We identified 21 eligible studies (26 datasets), which included 3609 cases and 7137 controls. High concentrations of IGF-I were associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio comparing 75th with 25th percentile 1.49, 95% CI 1.14-1.95) and premenopausal breast cancer (1.65, 1.26-2.08) and high concentrations of IGFBP-3 were associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer (1.51, 1.01-2.27). Associations were larger in assessments of plasma samples than in serum samples, and in standard case-control studies compared with nested studies. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are associated with an increased risk of common cancers, but associations are modest and vary between sites. Although laboratory methods need to be standardised, these epidemiological observations could have major implications for assessment of risk and prevention of cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRP
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2020
                December 2020
                25 November 2020
                : 93
                : 5
                : 335-342
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Child Health, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom
                bDepartment of Paediatrics, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, London, United Kingdom
                cViapath Laboratories, Guy’s Hospital, Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom
                dDepartment of Clinical Genetics, Guy’s Hospital, Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom
                eFaculty of Life Science and Medicine, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                *Ved Bhushan Arya, Paediatric Endocrinology, Department of Child Health, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London, SE5 9RS (UK), vedarya@nhs.net
                Article
                511874 Horm Res Paediatr 2020;93:335–342
                10.1159/000511874
                33238275
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Novel Insights from Clinical Practice / Case Report

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