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      Dialytic Separation of Bundled, Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes from Carbonaceous Impurities

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          Abstract

          Separating functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) from functionalized amorphous carbon is challenging, due to their polydispersity and similar physicochemical properties. We describe a single-step, dialytic separation method that takes advantage of the ability of heavily functionalized SWCNTs to bundle in a polar environment while maintaining their solubility. Experiments on functionalized SWCNTs were compared with functionalized, C 60 fullerenes (buckyballs) to probe the general applicability of the method and further characterize the bundling process. This approach may simultaneously be used to purify a functionalization reaction mixture of unreacted small molecules and of residual solvents, such as dimethylformamide.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Nanobeam Mechanics: Elasticity, Strength, and Toughness of Nanorods and Nanotubes

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            Tissue biodistribution and blood clearance rates of intravenously administered carbon nanotube radiotracers.

            Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are intensively being developed for biomedical applications including drug and gene delivery. Although all possible clinical applications will require compatibility of CNT with the biological milieu, their in vivo capabilities and limitations have not yet been explored. In this work, water-soluble, single-walled CNT (SWNT) have been functionalized with the chelating molecule diethylentriaminepentaacetic (DTPA) and labeled with indium ((111)In) for imaging purposes. Intravenous (i.v.) administration of these functionalized SWNT (f-SWNT) followed by radioactivity tracing using gamma scintigraphy indicated that f-SWNT are not retained in any of the reticuloendothelial system organs (liver or spleen) and are rapidly cleared from systemic blood circulation through the renal excretion route. The observed rapid blood clearance and half-life (3 h) of f-SWNT has major implications for all potential clinical uses of CNT. Moreover, urine excretion studies using both f-SWNT and functionalized multiwalled CNT followed by electron microscopy analysis of urine samples revealed that both types of nanotubes were excreted as intact nanotubes. This work describes the pharmacokinetic parameters of i.v. administered functionalized CNT relevant for various therapeutic and diagnostic applications.
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              Promises, facts and challenges for carbon nanotubes in imaging and therapeutics.

              The use of carbon nanotubes in medicine is now at the crossroads between a proof-of-principle concept and an established preclinical candidate for a variety of therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Progress towards clinical trials will depend on the outcomes of efficacy and toxicology studies, which will provide the necessary risk-to-benefit assessments for carbon-nanotube-based materials. Here we focus on carbon nanotubes that have been studied in preclinical animal models, and draw attention to the promises, facts and challenges of these materials as they transition from research to the clinical phase. We address common questions regarding the use of carbon nanotubes in disease imaging and therapy, and highlight the opportunities and challenges ahead.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                101674010
                44724
                Crystals (Basel)
                Crystals (Basel)
                Crystals
                2073-4352
                12 December 2019
                20 November 2014
                2014
                11 May 2021
                : 4
                : 4
                : 450-465
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA;
                [2 ]Weill Cornell Medical College, 525 E 68th Street, New York, NY 10065, USA
                [3 ]Tri-Institutional MD-PhD Program, 1230 York Avenue, 320, New York, NY 10065, USA
                [4 ]School of Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
                [5 ]Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 408 East 69th, ZRC 1941, New York, NY 10021, USA;
                Author notes

                Author Contributions

                J. Justin Mulvey and Evan N. Feinberg wrote the manuscript, conceived, and performed the experiments. Michael R. McDevitt and David Scheinberg assisted in the design and analysis of experiments and in the writing of the manuscript.

                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; d-scheinberg@ 123456ski.mskcc.org ; Tel.: +1-646-888-2190; Fax: +1-646-422-0296.
                Article
                NIHMS1062601
                10.3390/cryst4040450
                8112586
                33981452

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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