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      Nicotinamide Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Chronic Colitis in Mice through Its Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Modulates the Gut Microbiota

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          Abstract

          Vitamin B (nicotinamide (NAM)), one of the most important nutritional components for humans, exerts anti-inflammatory activity. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of NAM on the gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in mice with chronic colitis. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 male mice by administration of 1.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), and the mice were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline (NS) or NAM. NAM treatment ameliorated weight loss and changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) score, and histologic scores. Moreover, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis of LPL cells revealed that the level of interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-12p70, IL-1 β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, interferon- (IFN-) γ, IL-21, and IL-17A was increased, while IL-10 was reduced, in the chronic colitis group compared to the control group, but the levels of all these factors were restored after NAM treatment. Then, 16S rRNA sequencing of the large intestinal content was performed, and analysis of alpha diversity and beta diversity showed that the richness of the gut microbiota was decreased in the DSS group compared to the control group and restored after NAM treatment. In addition, NAM modulated specific bacteria, including Odoribacter, Flexispira, and Bifidobacterium, in the NAM+chronic colitis group. Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) analysis indicated that NAM treatment restored disruptions in the functions of the gut microbiota (replication and repair, cell motility) in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Furthermore, NAM also restored the reduction in valeric acid in mice with DSS-induced chronic colitis. Our results suggest that NAM treatment could alleviate DSS-induced chronic colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammation and regulating the composition and function of gut microbiota.

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          Most cited references 83

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          Host-gut microbiota metabolic interactions.

          The composition and activity of the gut microbiota codevelop with the host from birth and is subject to a complex interplay that depends on the host genome, nutrition, and life-style. The gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of multiple host metabolic pathways, giving rise to interactive host-microbiota metabolic, signaling, and immune-inflammatory axes that physiologically connect the gut, liver, muscle, and brain. A deeper understanding of these axes is a prerequisite for optimizing therapeutic strategies to manipulate the gut microbiota to combat disease and improve health.
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            Indigenous bacteria from the gut microbiota regulate host serotonin biosynthesis.

            The gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains much of the body's serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), but mechanisms controlling the metabolism of gut-derived 5-HT remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the microbiota plays a critical role in regulating host 5-HT. Indigenous spore-forming bacteria (Sp) from the mouse and human microbiota promote 5-HT biosynthesis from colonic enterochromaffin cells (ECs), which supply 5-HT to the mucosa, lumen, and circulating platelets. Importantly, microbiota-dependent effects on gut 5-HT significantly impact host physiology, modulating GI motility and platelet function. We identify select fecal metabolites that are increased by Sp and that elevate 5-HT in chromaffin cell cultures, suggesting direct metabolic signaling of gut microbes to ECs. Furthermore, elevating luminal concentrations of particular microbial metabolites increases colonic and blood 5-HT in germ-free mice. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Sp are important modulators of host 5-HT and further highlight a key role for host-microbiota interactions in regulating fundamental 5-HT-related biological processes.
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              Activation of Gpr109a, receptor for niacin and the commensal metabolite butyrate, suppresses colonic inflammation and carcinogenesis.

              Commensal gut microflora and dietary fiber protect against colonic inflammation and colon cancer through unknown targets. Butyrate, a bacterial product from fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon, has been implicated in this process. GPR109A (encoded by Niacr1) is a receptor for butyrate in the colon. GPR109A is also a receptor for niacin, which is also produced by gut microbiota and suppresses intestinal inflammation. Here we showed that Gpr109a signaling promoted anti-inflammatory properties in colonic macrophages and dendritic cells and enabled them to induce differentiation of Treg cells and IL-10-producing T cells. Moreover, Gpr109a was essential for butyrate-mediated induction of IL-18 in colonic epithelium. Consequently, Niacr1(-/-) mice were susceptible to development of colonic inflammation and colon cancer. Niacin, a pharmacological Gpr109a agonist, suppressed colitis and colon cancer in a Gpr109a-dependent manner. Thus, Gpr10a has an essential role in mediating the beneficial effects of gut microbiota and dietary fiber in colon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Immunol Res
                J Immunol Res
                jir
                Journal of Immunology Research
                Hindawi
                2314-8861
                2314-7156
                2021
                6 March 2021
                : 2021
                Affiliations
                1Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110001 Liaoning Province, China
                2Department of Geriatrics, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110001 Liaoning Province, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Elizabeth Soares Fernandes

                Article
                10.1155/2021/5084713
                7959969
                Copyright © 2021 Kai Kang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Innovative Talents of Science and Technology Support Programs of Young and Middle-aged People of Shenyang
                Award ID: RC170446
                Funded by: Innovative Talent Support Program of the Institution of Higher Learning in Liaoning Province
                Award ID: 2018-478
                Categories
                Research Article

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