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      Predicting and analyzing DNA-binding domains using a systematic approach to identifying a set of informative physicochemical and biochemical properties

      1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , , 1 , 2

      BMC Bioinformatics

      BioMed Central

      The Ninth Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Conference (APBC 2011)

      11–14 January 2011

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          Abstract

          Background

          Existing methods of predicting DNA-binding proteins used valuable features of physicochemical properties to design support vector machine (SVM) based classifiers. Generally, selection of physicochemical properties and determination of their corresponding feature vectors rely mainly on known properties of binding mechanism and experience of designers. However, there exists a troublesome problem for designers that some different physicochemical properties have similar vectors of representing 20 amino acids and some closely related physicochemical properties have dissimilar vectors.

          Results

          This study proposes a systematic approach (named Auto-IDPCPs) to automatically identify a set of physicochemical and biochemical properties in the AAindex database to design SVM-based classifiers for predicting and analyzing DNA-binding domains/proteins. Auto-IDPCPs consists of 1) clustering 531 amino acid indices in AAindex into 20 clusters using a fuzzy c-means algorithm, 2) utilizing an efficient genetic algorithm based optimization method IBCGA to select an informative feature set of size m to represent sequences, and 3) analyzing the selected features to identify related physicochemical properties which may affect the binding mechanism of DNA-binding domains/proteins. The proposed Auto-IDPCPs identified m=22 features of properties belonging to five clusters for predicting DNA-binding domains with a five-fold cross-validation accuracy of 87.12%, which is promising compared with the accuracy of 86.62% of the existing method PSSM-400. For predicting DNA-binding sequences, the accuracy of 75.50% was obtained using m=28 features, where PSSM-400 has an accuracy of 74.22%. Auto-IDPCPs and PSSM-400 have accuracies of 80.73% and 82.81%, respectively, applied to an independent test data set of DNA-binding domains. Some typical physicochemical properties discovered are hydrophobicity, secondary structure, charge, solvent accessibility, polarity, flexibility, normalized Van Der Waals volume, pK (pK-C, pK-N, pK-COOH and pK-a(RCOOH)), etc.

          Conclusions

          The proposed approach Auto-IDPCPs would help designers to investigate informative physicochemical and biochemical properties by considering both prediction accuracy and analysis of binding mechanism simultaneously. The approach Auto-IDPCPs can be also applicable to predict and analyze other protein functions from sequences.

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          Most cited references 18

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          AAindex: amino acid index database, progress report 2008

          AAindex is a database of numerical indices representing various physicochemical and biochemical properties of amino acids and pairs of amino acids. We have added a collection of protein contact potentials to the AAindex as a new section. Accordingly AAindex consists of three sections now: AAindex1 for the amino acid index of 20 numerical values, AAindex2 for the amino acid substitution matrix and AAindex3 for the statistical protein contact potentials. All data are derived from published literature. The database can be accessed through the DBGET/LinkDB system at GenomeNet (http://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bfind?aaindex) or downloaded by anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.genome.jp/pub/db/community/aaindex/).
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            Analysis and prediction of DNA-binding proteins and their binding residues based on composition, sequence and structural information.

            Though vitally important to cell function, the mechanism of protein-DNA binding has not yet been completely understood. We therefore analysed the relationship between DNA binding and protein sequence composition, solvent accessibility and secondary structure. Using non-redundant databases of transcription factors and protein-DNA complexes, neural network models were developed to utilize the information present in this relationship to predict DNA-binding proteins and their binding residues. Sequence composition was found to provide sufficient information to predict the probability of its binding to DNA with nearly 69% sensitivity at 64% accuracy for the considered proteins; sequence neighbourhood and solvent accessibility information were sufficient to make binding site predictions with 40% sensitivity at 79% accuracy. Detailed analysis of binding residues shows that some three- and five-residue segments frequently bind to DNA and that solvent accessibility plays a major role in binding. Although, binding behaviour was not associated with any particular secondary structure, there were interesting exceptions at the residue level. Over-representation of some residues in the binding sites was largely lost at the total sequence level, but a different kind of compositional preference was observed in DNA-binding proteins.
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              Identification of DNA-binding proteins using support vector machines and evolutionary profiles

              Background Identification of DNA-binding proteins is one of the major challenges in the field of genome annotation, as these proteins play a crucial role in gene-regulation. In this paper, we developed various SVM modules for predicting DNA-binding domains and proteins. All models were trained and tested on multiple datasets of non-redundant proteins. Results SVM models have been developed on DNAaset, which consists of 1153 DNA-binding and equal number of non DNA-binding proteins, and achieved the maximum accuracy of 72.42% and 71.59% using amino acid and dipeptide compositions, respectively. The performance of SVM model improved from 72.42% to 74.22%, when evolutionary information in form of PSSM profiles was used as input instead of amino acid composition. In addition, SVM models have been developed on DNAset, which consists of 146 DNA-binding and 250 non-binding chains/domains, and achieved the maximum accuracy of 79.80% and 86.62% using amino acid composition and PSSM profiles. The SVM models developed in this study perform better than existing methods on a blind dataset. Conclusion A highly accurate method has been developed for predicting DNA-binding proteins using SVM and PSSM profiles. This is the first study in which evolutionary information in form of PSSM profiles has been used successfully for predicting DNA-binding proteins. A web-server DNAbinder has been developed for identifying DNA-binding proteins and domains from query amino acid sequences .
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                Author and article information

                Conference
                BMC Bioinformatics
                BMC Bioinformatics
                BioMed Central
                1471-2105
                2011
                15 February 2011
                : 12
                : Suppl 1
                : S47
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan
                [2 ]Institute of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan
                [3 ]Department of Multimedia Entertainment Science, Asia Pacific Institute of Creativity, Miaoli, Taiwan
                [4 ]Department of Automation Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan
                Article
                1471-2105-12-S1-S47
                10.1186/1471-2105-12-S1-S47
                3044304
                21342579
                Copyright ©2011 Huang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                The Ninth Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Conference (APBC 2011)
                Inchon, Korea
                11–14 January 2011
                Categories
                Research

                Bioinformatics & Computational biology

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