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      Laser Capture Microdissection-Microarray Analysis of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Glomeruli

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          Abstract

          Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease. In this report we used laser capture microdissection to purify diseased glomeruli, and microarrays to provide universal gene expression profiles. The results provide a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the disease process and suggest novel therapeutic strategies. Consistent with earlier studies, molecular markers of the differentiated podocyte, including WT1, nephrin, and VEGF, were dramatically downregulated in the diseased glomerulus. We also observed multiple changes consistent with increased TGF-β signaling, including elevated expression of TGF-β<sub>2</sub>, TGF-β<sub>3</sub>, SMAD2, TGF-β<sub>1</sub> receptor, and thrombospondin. In addition, there was relatively low level expression of Csf1r, a marker of macrophages, but elevated expression of the chemokines CXCL1, CXCL2, CCL3, and CXCL14. We also observed strongly upregulated expression of Sox9, a transcription factor that can drive a genetic program of chondrogenesis and fibrosis. Further, the gene with the greatest fold increase in expression in the diseased glomerulus was osteopontin, which has been previously strongly implicated in kidney fibrosis in the unilateral ureteral obstruction mouse model. These results confirm old findings, and indicate the involvement of new genetic pathways in the cause and progression of FSGS.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Transforming growth factor beta in tissue fibrosis.

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            NPHS2, encoding the glomerular protein podocin, is mutated in autosomal recessive steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

            Familial idiopathic nephrotic syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of kidney disorders, and include autosomal recessive steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, which is characterized by early childhood onset of proteinuria, rapid progression to end-stage renal disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. A causative gene for this disease, NPHS2, was mapped to 1q25-31 and we report here its identification by positional cloning. NPHS2 is almost exclusively expressed in the podocytes of fetal and mature kidney glomeruli, and encodes a new integral membrane protein, podocin, belonging to the stomatin protein family. We found ten different NPHS2 mutations, comprising nonsense, frameshift and missense mutations, to segregate with the disease, demonstrating a crucial role for podocin in the function of the glomerular filtration barrier.
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              Mutations in ACTN4, encoding alpha-actinin-4, cause familial focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

              Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common, non-specific renal lesion. Although it is often secondary to other disorders, including HIV infection, obesity, hypertension and diabetes, FSGS also appears as an isolated, idiopathic condition. FSGS is characterized by increased urinary protein excretion and decreasing kidney function. Often, renal insufficiency in affected patients progresses to end-stage renal failure, a highly morbid state requiring either dialysis therapy or kidney transplantation. Here we present evidence implicating mutations in the gene encoding alpha-actinin-4 (ACTN4; ref. 2), an actin-filament crosslinking protein, as the cause of disease in three families with an autosomal dominant form of FSGS. In vitro, mutant alpha-actinin-4 binds filamentous actin (F-actin) more strongly than does wild-type alpha-actinin-4. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton of glomerular podocytes may be altered in this group of patients. Our results have implications for understanding the role of the cytoskeleton in the pathophysiology of kidney disease and may lead to a better understanding of the genetic basis of susceptibility to kidney damage.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2007
                September 2007
                06 August 2007
                : 107
                : 1
                : e30-e40
                Affiliations
                Divisions of aNephrology and Hypertension, bPathology and cDevelopmental Biology, Children’s Hospital Medical Center, and dDepartment of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
                Article
                106775 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2007;107:e30–e40
                10.1159/000106775
                17684420
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, References: 46, Pages: 1
                Categories
                Original Paper

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