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      Long-Term Evaluation of Basiliximab Induction Therapy in Live Donor Kidney Transplantation: A Five-Year Prospective Randomized Study

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: The long-term evaluation of basiliximab induction therapy has not been addressed yet. We aim to evaluate its long-term effects in living related donor kidney transplantation. Methods: 100 adult recipients with their first kidney allograft were randomized into two treatment groups – one group received basiliximab and the second served as a control. All patients received a maintenance triple immunosuppressive therapy (steroids, cyclosporine microemulsion and azathioprine) and were closely followed for 5 years. Results: Basiliximab significantly reduced the proportion of patients who experienced an acute rejection in the first year (18/50) when compared to the control group (31/50) and in 5 years (27/50) when compared to (36/50) the controls. The cumulative steroid dose used throughout the study was significantly lower in the basiliximab group. The overall incidence of post-transplant complications was comparable between the two treatment groups. There was no significant difference in patients and graft survival; 5-year patient and graft survival were 100 and 86% for basiliximab, and 96 and 88% for the control group respectively. Conclusion: Although routine basiliximab induction significantly reduces the incidence of acute rejection, its beneficial long-term effects on graft function and patient and graft survival are not yet evident.

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          Most cited references 14

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          The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology.

          Standardization of renal allograft biopsy interpretation is necessary to guide therapy and to establish an objective end point for clinical trials. This manuscript describes a classification, Banff 97, developed by investigators using the Banff Schema and the Collaborative Clinical Trials in Transplantation (CCTT) modification for diagnosis of renal allograft pathology. Banff 97 grew from an international consensus discussion begun at Banff and continued via the Internet. This schema developed from (a) analysis of data using the Banff classification, (b) publication of and experience with the CCTT modification, (c) international conferences, and (d) data from recent studies on impact of vasculitis on transplant outcome. Semiquantitative lesion scoring continues to focus on tubulitis and arteritis but includes a minimum threshold for interstitial inflammation. Banff 97 defines "types" of acute/active rejection. Type I is tubulointerstitial rejection without arteritis. Type II is vascular rejection with intimal arteritis, and type III is severe rejection with transmural arterial changes. Biopsies with only mild inflammation are graded as "borderline/suspicious for rejection." Chronic/sclerosing allograft changes are graded based on severity of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Antibody-mediated rejection, hyperacute or accelerated acute in presentation, is also categorized, as are other significant allograft findings. The Banff 97 working classification refines earlier schemas and represents input from two classifications most widely used in clinical rejection trials and in clinical practice worldwide. Major changes include the following: rejection with vasculitis is separated from tubulointerstitial rejection; severe rejection requires transmural changes in arteries; "borderline" rejection can only be interpreted in a clinical context; antibody-mediated rejection is further defined, and lesion scoring focuses on most severely involved structures. Criteria for specimen adequacy have also been modified. Banff 97 represents a significant refinement of allograft assessment, developed via international consensus discussions.
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            A randomized, double-blinded comparison of Thymoglobulin versus Atgam for induction immunosuppressive therapy in adult renal transplant recipients.

            The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of Thymoglobulin (a rabbit-derived polyclonal antibody) to Atgam (a horse-derived polyclonal antibody) for induction in adult renal transplant recipients. Transplant recipients (n=72) were randomized 2:1 in a double-blinded fashion to receive Thymoglobulin (n=48) at 1.5 mg/kg intravenously or Atgam (n=24) at 15 mg/kg intravenously, intraoperatively, then daily for at least 6 days. Recipients were observed for at least 1 year of follow-up. By 1 year after transplantation, 4% of Thymoglobulin-treated patients experienced acute rejection compared with 25% of Atgam-treated patients (P=0.014). The rate of acute rejection was lower with Thymoglobulin than Atgam (relative risk=0.09; P=0.009). Rejection was less severe with Thymoglobulin than Atgam (P=0.02). No recurrent rejection occurred with Thymoglobulin compared with 33% with Atgam (P=NS). Patient survival was not different, but the composite end point of freedom from death, graft loss, or rejection, the "event-free survival," was superior with Thymoglobulin (94%) compared with Atgam (63%; P=0.0005). Fewer adverse events occurred with Thymoglobulin (P=0.013). Leukopenia was more common with Thymoglobulin than Atgam (56% vs. 4%; P<0.0001) during induction. The mean absolute lymphocyte count remained below baseline with Thymoglobulin throughout the study (P<0.007), but with Atgam, significant lymphocyte reductions occurred only at day 7. The incidence of cytomegalovirus disease was less with Thymoglobulin than Atgam at 6 months (10% vs. 33%; P=0.025). Brief (7-day) induction with Thymoglobulin resulted in less frequent and less severe rejection, a better event-free survival, less cytomegalovirus disease, fewer serious adverse events, but more frequent early leukopenia than induction with Atgam. These results may in fact be explained by a more profound and durable beneficial lymphopenia.
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              Randomised trial of basiliximab versus placebo for control of acute cellular rejection in renal allograft recipients

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2005
                June 2005
                01 July 2005
                : 25
                : 3
                : 221-225
                Affiliations
                Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
                Article
                85892 Am J Nephrol 2005;25:221–225
                10.1159/000085892
                15908741
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 17, Pages: 5
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/85892
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Basiliximab, Induction therapy, Kidney transplantation

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