Objective To monitor and analyze the epidemiological characteristics of influenza in schools and understand the disease burden of students, and to provide a scientific reference for instructing the prevention of influenza in schools.
Methods A school influenza surveillance sentinel to conduct influenza-like case (ILI) surveillance and outbreak surveillance. Through network, we understood the burden of flu disease among students. Descriptive epidemiology was used to analyze influenza-like case surveillance and questionnaire survey data.
Results Surveillance confirmed that from the 42th week of 2019 to the 1st week of 2020, the cumulative reported ILI of 3 school influenza surveillance sites in Jinan accounted for 7.91% (ILI%) of the total number of surveillance personnel during the same period, with the highest ILI% (24.19%) of kindergarten children, ILI% gradually decreased with the increase of grade, and teachers were the lowest. The reporting of ILI was concentrated in the 49th to 52nd week of 2019, during which the reported influenza-like cases accounted for 84.81% of the total number of ILI reported during the surveillance period. Two influenza outbreaks were monitored. The pathogens were H3N2 and B (Victoria). The epidemics mainly occurred in the lower grades of elementary school. A survey of 2 297 students found that 577 people had fever and respiratory symptoms since October 2019. Among them, 85.26% of them went to the hospital, 32.75% of those who used anti-influenza drugs such as oseltamivir, and 64.81% of those who used antibiotics. 42.63% received infusion therapy, 3.99% were hospitalized, and the average cost of inpatients was 6 686 yuan. The sick students were absent from school for an average of 3.77 days, and the parents of the sick children missed work for an average of 4.26 days.
Conclusion Surveillance of influenza-like cases in schools is an important way to proactively discover influenza epidemic trends and outbreaks, and to accurately grasp the characteristics of influenza epidemics in schools. The key populations affected by influenza are kindergarten children and lower grades of primary school students. Suffering from influenza has caused a heavy disease burden on students and children in kindergartens, and is also an important factor that causes student absenteeism and parents to miss work.
【摘要】 目的 监测学校流感流行特征并分析学生疾病负担情况, 为指导学校流感防控提供科学依据。 方法 在济南市 天桥、历下、髙新3座城市建成区建立学校流感监测哨点, 进行流感样病例(ILI)监测及暴发疫情监测, 并进行学生流感疾 病负担问卷调査。采用描述性流行病学对流感样病例监测结果和问卷调査资料进行分析。 结果 2019年第42周一2020 年第1周, 济南市3个学校流感监测点累计报告ILI占同期监测人员总数百分比(ILI%)为7.91%, 其中幼儿园儿童ILI% (24,19%)最髙, 随着年级的增长ILI%逐渐降低, 教师最低。报告ILI集中于2019年第49~52周, 期间报告流感样病例占 监测期间报告ILI总数的84.81%。监测到2起流感暴发疫情, 病原分别为H3N2、B(Victoria), 疫情主要发生在小学低年 级。调査2 297名学生发现, 2019年10月以来出现发热、呼吸道症状者577名, 其中去医院就诊者占85.26%, 使用奥司他 韦等抗流感病毒药物者占32.75%, 使用抗生素治疗者占64.81%, 进行输液治疗者占42.63%, 住院者占3.99%, 住院者花费 平均6 686元。患病学生平均缺课3.77 d, 因照顾患儿家长平均误工4.26 d。 结论 进行学校流感样病例监测是主动发现 流感流行趋势及暴发疫情、准确掌握学校流感流行特征的重要方式。幼儿园儿童及小学低年级学生是流感防控的重点人 群, 罹患流感给学生及托幼儿童造成较重的疾病负担, 也是引起学生缺勤及家长误工的重要因素。