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      Tissue Variability and Antennas for Power Transfer to Wireless Implantable Medical Devices

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          Abstract

          The design of effective transcutaneous systems demands the consideration of inevitable variations in tissue characteristics, which vary across body areas, among individuals, and over time. The purpose of this paper was to design and evaluate several printed antenna topologies for ultrahigh frequency (UHF) transcutaneous power transfer to implantable medical devices, and to investigate the effects of variations in tissue properties on dipole and loop topologies. Here, we show that a loop antenna topology provides the greatest achievable gain with the smallest implanted antenna, while a dipole system provides higher impedance for conjugate matching and the ability to increase gain with a larger external antenna. In comparison to the dipole system, the loop system exhibits greater sensitivity to changes in tissue structure and properties in terms of power gain, but provides higher gain when the separation is on the order of the smaller antenna dimension. The dipole system was shown to provide higher gain than the loop system at greater implant depths for the same implanted antenna area, and was less sensitive to variations in tissue properties and structure in terms of power gain at all investigated implant depths. The results show the potential of easily-fabricated, low-cost printed antenna topologies for UHF transcutaneous power, and the importance of environmental considerations in choosing the antenna topology.

          Abstract

          We present the design and evaluation of several printed antenna topologies for ultra highfrequency (UHF) transcutaneous power transfer to implantable medical devices, including an investigation of the effects of variations in tissue properties on dipole and loop topologies. The results show the potential of easily-fabricated, low-cost printed antenna topologies for UHF transcutaneous power, and the importance of environmental considerations in choosing the antenna topology.

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          Most cited references 35

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          The dielectric properties of biological tissues: II. Measurements in the frequency range 10 Hz to 20 GHz.

          Three experimental techniques based on automatic swept-frequency network and impedance analysers were used to measure the dielectric properties of tissue in the frequency range 10 Hz to 20 GHz. The technique used in conjunction with the impedance analyser is described. Results are given for a number of human and animal tissues, at body temperature, across the frequency range, demonstrating that good agreement was achieved between measurements using the three pieces of equipment. Moreover, the measured values fall well within the body of corresponding literature data.
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            The dielectric properties of biological tissues: I. Literature survey.

            The dielectric properties of tissues have been extracted from the literature of the past five decades and presented in a graphical format. The purpose is to assess the current state of knowledge, expose the gaps there are and provide a basis for the evaluation and analysis of corresponding data from an on-going measurement programme.
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              Wireless power transfer to deep-tissue microimplants.

              The ability to implant electronic systems in the human body has led to many medical advances. Progress in semiconductor technology paved the way for devices at the scale of a millimeter or less ("microimplants"), but the miniaturization of the power source remains challenging. Although wireless powering has been demonstrated, energy transfer beyond superficial depths in tissue has so far been limited by large coils (at least a centimeter in diameter) unsuitable for a microimplant. Here, we show that this limitation can be overcome by a method, termed midfield powering, to create a high-energy density region deep in tissue inside of which the power-harvesting structure can be made extremely small. Unlike conventional near-field (inductively coupled) coils, for which coupling is limited by exponential field decay, a patterned metal plate is used to induce spatially confined and adaptive energy transport through propagating modes in tissue. We use this method to power a microimplant (2 mm, 70 mg) capable of closed-chest wireless control of the heart that is orders of magnitude smaller than conventional pacemakers. With exposure levels below human safety thresholds, milliwatt levels of power can be transferred to a deep-tissue (>5 cm) microimplant for both complex electronic function and physiological stimulation. The approach developed here should enable new generations of implantable systems that can be integrated into the body at minimal cost and risk.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                departmentDepartment of Electrical and Computer Engineering, institutionUniversity of Pittsburgh; PittsburghPA15260USA
                Author notes
                Contributors
                Journal
                IEEE J Transl Eng Health Med
                IEEE J Transl Eng Health Med
                0063400
                JTEHM
                IJTEBN
                IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
                IEEE
                2168-2372
                2017
                09 August 2017
                : 5
                5630008 10.1109/JTEHM.2017.2723391 2700111
                2168-2372 © 2017 IEEE. Translations and content mining are permitted for academic research only. Personal use is also permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
                Counts
                Figures: 9, Tables: 2, Equations: 35, References: 43, Pages: 11
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