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      Time Processing, Interoception, and Insula Activation: A Mini-Review on Clinical Disorders

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          Time processing is a multifaceted skill crucial for managing different aspects of life. In the current work, we explored the relationship between interoception and time processing by examining research on clinical models. We investigated whether time processing deficits are associated with dysfunction of the interoceptive system and/or insular cortex activity, which is crucial in decoding internal body signaling. Furthermore, we explored whether insular activation predicts the subjective experience of time (i.e., the subjective duration of a target stimulus to be timed). Overall, our work suggests that alteration of the interoceptive system could be a common psychophysiological hallmark of mental disorders affected by time processing deficits.

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          Most cited references 95

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          Interoception in anxiety and depression

          We review the literature on interoception as it relates to depression and anxiety, with a focus on belief, and alliesthesia. The connection between increased but noisy afferent interoceptive input, self-referential and belief-based states, and top-down modulation of poorly predictive signals is integrated into a neuroanatomical and processing model for depression and anxiety. The advantage of this conceptualization is the ability to specifically examine the interface between basic interoception, self-referential belief-based states, and enhanced top-down modulation to attenuate poor predictability. We conclude that depression and anxiety are not simply interoceptive disorders but are altered interoceptive states as a consequence of noisily amplified self-referential interoceptive predictive belief states.
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            The image of time: a voxel-wise meta-analysis.

            Although there has been an explosion of interest in the neural correlates of time perception during the past decade, substantial disagreement persists regarding the structures that are relevant to interval timing. We addressed this important issue by conducting a comprehensive, voxel-wise meta-analysis using the activation likelihood estimation algorithm; this procedure models each stereotactic coordinate as a 3D Gaussian distribution, then tests the likelihood of activation across all voxels in the brain (Turkeltaub et al., 2002). We included 446 sets of activation foci across 41 studies of timing that report whole-brain analyses. We divided the data set along two dimensions: stimulus duration (sub- vs. supra-second) and nature of response (motor vs. perceptual). Our meta-analyses revealed dissociable neural networks for the processing of duration with motor or perceptual components. Sub-second timing tasks showed a higher propensity to recruit sub-cortical networks, such as the basal ganglia and cerebellum, whereas supra-second timing tasks were more likely to activate cortical structures, such as the SMA and prefrontal cortex. We also detected a differential pattern of activation likelihood in basal ganglia structures, depending on the interval and task design. Finally, a conjunction analysis revealed the SMA and right inferior frontal gyrus as the only structures with significant voxels across all timing conditions. These results suggest that the processing of temporal information is mediated by a distributed network that can be differentially engaged depending on the task requirements.
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              Emotional moments across time: a possible neural basis for time perception in the anterior insula.

              A model of awareness based on interoceptive salience is described, which has an endogenous time base that might provide a basis for the human capacity to perceive and estimate time intervals in the range of seconds to subseconds. The model posits that the neural substrate for awareness across time is located in the anterior insular cortex, which fits with recent functional imaging evidence relevant to awareness and time perception. The time base in this model is adaptive and emotional, and thus it offers an explanation for some aspects of the subjective nature of time perception. This model does not describe the mechanism of the time base, but it suggests a possible relationship with interoceptive afferent activity, such as heartbeat-related inputs.

                Author and article information

                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                18 August 2020
                : 11
                1Dipartimento di Scienze Cognitive, Psicologiche, Pedagogiche e Degli Studi Culturali, Università di Messina , Messina, Italy
                2Department of Psychology and Neurosciences, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors , Dortmund, Germany
                3Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology and Centro Polifunzionale di Scienze Motorie, University of Genoa , Genoa, Italy
                4Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina , Messina, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited by: Anne Giersch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), France

                Reviewed by: Marc Wittmann, Institute for Frontier Areas of Psychology and Mental Health (IGPP), Germany; Francesca Ferri, University of Studies G. d’Annunzio Chieti and Pescara, Italy

                *Correspondence: Carmelo Mario Vicario, cvicario@ 123456unime.it

                This article was submitted to Psychopathology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Copyright © 2020 Vicario, Nitsche, Salehinejad, Avanzino and Martino.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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