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Temporomandibular Joint Regenerative Medicine

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      Abstract

      The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is an articulation formed between the temporal bone and the mandibular condyle which is commonly affected. These affections are often so painful during fundamental oral activities that patients have lower quality of life. Limitations of therapeutics for severe TMJ diseases have led to increased interest in regenerative strategies combining stem cells, implantable scaffolds and well-targeting bioactive molecules. To succeed in functional and structural regeneration of TMJ is very challenging. Innovative strategies and biomaterials are absolutely crucial because TMJ can be considered as one of the most difficult tissues to regenerate due to its limited healing capacity, its unique histological and structural properties and the necessity for long-term prevention of its ossified or fibrous adhesions. The ideal approach for TMJ regeneration is a unique scaffold functionalized with an osteochondral molecular gradient containing a single stem cell population able to undergo osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation such as BMSCs, ADSCs or DPSCs. The key for this complex regeneration is the functionalization with active molecules such as IGF-1, TGF-β1 or bFGF. This regeneration can be optimized by nano/micro-assisted functionalization and by spatiotemporal drug delivery systems orchestrating the 3D formation of TMJ tissues.

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      Multilineage cells from human adipose tissue: implications for cell-based therapies.

      Future cell-based therapies such as tissue engineering will benefit from a source of autologous pluripotent stem cells. For mesodermal tissue engineering, one such source of cells is the bone marrow stroma. The bone marrow compartment contains several cell populations, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are capable of differentiating into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic cells. However, autologous bone marrow procurement has potential limitations. An alternate source of autologous adult stem cells that is obtainable in large quantities, under local anesthesia, with minimal discomfort would be advantageous. In this study, we determined if a population of stem cells could be isolated from human adipose tissue. Human adipose tissue, obtained by suction-assisted lipectomy (i.e., liposuction), was processed to obtain a fibroblast-like population of cells or a processed lipoaspirate (PLA). These PLA cells can be maintained in vitro for extended periods with stable population doubling and low levels of senescence. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry show that the majority of PLA cells are of mesodermal or mesenchymal origin with low levels of contaminating pericytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Finally, PLA cells differentiate in vitro into adipogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic, and osteogenic cells in the presence of lineage-specific induction factors. In conclusion, the data support the hypothesis that a human lipoaspirate contains multipotent cells and may represent an alternative stem cell source to bone marrow-derived MSCs.
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        Postnatal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in vitro and in vivo.

        Dentinal repair in the postnatal organism occurs through the activity of specialized cells, odontoblasts, that are thought to be maintained by an as yet undefined precursor population associated with pulp tissue. In this study, we isolated a clonogenic, rapidly proliferative population of cells from adult human dental pulp. These DPSCs were then compared with human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), known precursors of osteoblasts. Although they share a similar immunophenotype in vitro, functional studies showed that DPSCs produced only sporadic, but densely calcified nodules, and did not form adipocytes, whereas BMSCs routinely calcified throughout the adherent cell layer with clusters of lipid-laden adipocytes. When DPSCs were transplanted into immunocompromised mice, they generated a dentin-like structure lined with human odontoblast-like cells that surrounded a pulp-like interstitial tissue. In contrast, BMSCs formed lamellar bone containing osteocytes and surface-lining osteoblasts, surrounding a fibrous vascular tissue with active hematopoiesis and adipocytes. This study isolates postnatal human DPSCs that have the ability to form a dentin/pulp-like complex.
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          Bone Tissue Engineering: Recent Advances and Challenges

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]INSERM (French National Institute of Health and Medical Research), UMR 1260, Regenerative Nanomedicine (RNM), FMTS, 11 rue Humann, 67000 Strasbourg, France; dr.xvb@ 123456laposte.net (X.V.B.); ysiaidouxgillet@ 123456free.fr (Y.I.-G.); marion.pugliano@ 123456gmail.com (M.P.); strub.marion@ 123456orange.fr (M.S.); bornertfabien@ 123456gmail.com (F.B.); francois_clauss@ 123456hotmail.com (F.C.); pschwinte@ 123456unistra.fr (P.S.); lkeller@ 123456unistra.fr (L.K.); nadia.jessel@ 123456inserm.fr (N.B.-J.); kuchler@ 123456unistra.fr (S.K.-B.); Jean-Christophe.LUTZ@ 123456chru-strasbourg.fr (J.C.L.)
            [2 ]Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire, Université de Strasbourg, 8 rue Ste Elisabeth, 67000 Strasbourg, France
            [3 ]Médecine et Chirurgie Bucco-Dentaires & Chirurgie Maxillo-Facial, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg (HUS), 1 place de l’Hôpital, 67000 Strasbourg, France
            [4 ]Faculté de Médecine, Université de Strasbourg, 11 rue Humann, 67000 Strasbourg, France
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: f.fioretti@ 123456unistra.fr ; Tel.: +33-3-68-85-33-76
            [†]

            These authors contributed equally to this work.

            Journal
            Int J Mol Sci
            Int J Mol Sci
            ijms
            International Journal of Molecular Sciences
            MDPI
            1422-0067
            02 February 2018
            February 2018
            : 19
            : 2
            29393880
            5855668
            10.3390/ijms19020446
            ijms-19-00446
            © 2018 by the authors.

            Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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