Both opiates and serotonin (5HT) are known to inhibit LH release in ovariectomized rats, and estrogen has been shown to reverse certain serotonergic effects. Therefore studies were undertaken to compare the effects of morphine and the serotonin agonist 5-methoxy-NN-dimethyltryptamine (5MEODMT) on LH release in ovariectomized rats with and without estrogen priming. Serial blood samples were collected via jugular cannulae before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after intravenous administration of morphine, 5MEODMT or both to rats receiving no pretreatment, or a serotonin receptor antagonist (methysergide, METH; or ketanserin, KET) 60 min earlier. In the absence of estrogen, morphine inhibited LH release, and the response was delayed by METH or abolished by KET, suggesting mediation by serotonin<sub>2</sub> (5HT<sub>2</sub>) receptors. 5MEODMT alone failed to alter the release of LH significantly, but apparently activated both stimulatory and inhibitory serotonergic systems. Blockade of 5HT<sub>2</sub> receptors with KET enabled an inhibitory system to prevail. No significant changes in LH concentrations were observed following combined administration of morphine and 5MEODMT. Similarly, in estrogen-primed rats morphine appeared to activate both inhibitory (5HT<sub>2</sub>) and stimulatory (5HT<sub>1</sub>) systems, resulting in no net change unless the inhibitory system had been antagonized by KET. Administration of 5MEODMT alone or in combination with morphine resulted in a strong stimulatory effect which appeared to be mediated by 5HT<sub>1</sub> receptors. These results suggest the existence of a multiplicity of serotonergic influences on the release of LH in the rat, not only in terms of particular species of 5HT receptors, but also in neuronal connectivity. Finally, it is clear that the responses to morphine and 5MEODMT are not only not equivalent, but are mediated by different mechanisms whose effects are integrated downstream in order to produce the observed effects on LH release.