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      Validation of a fractional model for erythrocyte sedimentation rate

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          Abstract

          We present the validation of a recent fractional mathematical model for erythrocyte sedimentation proposed by Sharma et al. \cite{GMR}. The model uses a Caputo fractional derivative to build a time fractional diffusion equation suitable to predict blood sedimentation rates. This validation was carried out by means of erythrocyte sedimentation tests in laboratory. Data on sedimentation rates (percentages) were analyzed and compared with the analytical solution of the time fractional diffusion equation. The behavior of the analytical solution related to each blood sample sedimentation data was described and analyzed.

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          Red blood cell aggregation and dissociation in shear flows simulated by lattice Boltzmann method.

          In this paper we develop a lattice Boltzmann algorithm to simulate red blood cell (RBC) behavior in shear flows. The immersed boundary method is employed to incorporate the fluid-membrane interaction between the flow field and deformable cells. The cell membrane is treated as a neo-Hookean viscoelastic material and a Morse potential is adopted to model the intercellular interaction. Utilizing the available mechanical properties of RBCs, multiple cells have been studied in shear flows using a two-dimensional approximation. These cells aggregate and form a rouleau under the action of intercellular interaction. The equilibrium configuration is related to the interaction strength. The end cells exhibit concave shapes under weak interaction and convex shapes under strong interaction. In shear flows, such a rouleau-like aggregate will rotate or be separated, depending on the relative strengths of the intercellular interaction and hydrodynamic viscous forces. These behaviors are qualitatively similar to experimental observations and show the potential of this numerical scheme for future studies of blood flow in microvessels.
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            The use of receiver operating characteristics analysis in determining erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels in diagnosing periprosthetic infection prior to revision total hip arthroplasty.

            Periprosthetic infection (PPI) is a difficult complication in total joint arthroplasty, and while erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are acute phase reactants thought to be of high predictive value for diagnosing infection, no clear cut-off values have been defined. The current study aimed to determine the cut-off values for ESR and CRP that improve clinical differentiation between aseptic failure and PPI in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Four hundred and seventy-nine patients who underwent revision THA for either aseptic mechanical failure or PPI during the period of 2000 to 2005 were included in the study. Specific exclusion criteria were applied to eliminate inflammatory or other confounding conditions. All patients underwent preoperative testing of ESR and CRP. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine maximum sensitivity and specificity. Patients with PPI had significantly higher ESR and CRP values compared to patients undergoing revision for aseptic etiologies. An ESR threshold of 30 mm/h gave a sensitivity of 94.3% and a CRP threshold of 10 mg/l gave a sensitivity of 91.1%. Combining both ESR and CRP cut-offs for a positive diagnosis increased the sensitivity to 97.6%. However, when calculated by ROC analysis, the predictive cut-offs equated to 31 mm/h for ESR and 20.5 mg/l for CRP. The gold standard for diagnosing PPI remains bacterial culture, but sensitivity is negatively affected by prior antibiotic exposure, strongly adherent bacteria, slow growing persisters, and biofilms. ESR and CRP are reflective of systemic changes in infection and pose an attractive, less invasive alternative with reasonable sensitivity and specificity. The current study is the first to identify ideal cut-off values for ESR and CRP in THA patients, providing an optimum balance between sensitivity and specificity based on ROC curves.
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              THE SUSPENSION STABILITY OF THE BLOOD

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                09 February 2018
                Article
                1802.04340

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                26A06, 26A33, 33RXX, 34A30, 35KXX, 92BXX, 92DXX
                18 pages; 8 figures; 2 tables
                q-bio.TO math.CA

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