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      Optimal stress and deformation partition in gradient materials for better strength and tensile ductility: A numerical investigation

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          Abstract

          Inspired by recent progress in developing gradient materials with excellent performances, here we report a systematic finite-element based investigation to show how the strength and tensile ductility of gradient crystalline metals depend on their microstructure characteristics. We reveal that the yielding strength of polycrystalline metals with gradient grain size can be significantly enhanced at no reduction in ductility. By employing a representative 3D voronoi gradient sample, we demonstrate that the redistribution of stress and deformation in the gradient structure - stronger grains carry more load and ductile ones share more deformation - accounts for the realized optimal property in strength and ductility. In addition, the hardenability of the ductile domain is beneficial to circumvent pre-mature plastic instability in gradient samples.

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          Most cited references 30

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          The Deformation and Ageing of Mild Steel: III Discussion of Results

           E Hall (1951)
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            Strain gradient plasticity: Theory and experiment

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              Materials become insensitive to flaws at nanoscale: lessons from nature.

              Natural materials such as bone, tooth, and nacre are nanocomposites of proteins and minerals with superior strength. Why is the nanometer scale so important to such materials? Can we learn from this to produce superior nanomaterials in the laboratory? These questions motivate the present study where we show that the nanocomposites in nature exhibit a generic mechanical structure in which the nanometer size of mineral particles is selected to ensure optimum strength and maximum tolerance of flaws (robustness). We further show that the widely used engineering concept of stress concentration at flaws is no longer valid for nanomaterial design.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                qli3@bjtu.edu.cn
                yujie_wei@lnm.imech.ac.cn
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                8 September 2017
                8 September 2017
                2017
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0369 313X, GRID grid.419897.a, Key Laboratory of Vehicle Advanced Manufacturing, Measuring and Control Technology (Beijing Jiaotong University), Ministry of Education, Beijing Jiaotong University, ; Beijing, 100044 China
                [2 ]ISNI 0000000119573309, GRID grid.9227.e, State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics (LNM), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ; Beijing, 100190 China
                Article
                10941
                10.1038/s41598-017-10941-7
                5591260
                28887509
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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