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      La influencia de los padres sobre el consumo de alcohol y tabaco y otros hábitos de los adolescentes de Palma de Mallorca en 2003 Translated title: The Influence of Parents on Habits and Substance Use in Adolescents of Palma de Mallorca, Spain, in 2003

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          Abstract

          Fundamento. El consumo de alcohol y tabaco es frecuente entre los adolescentes. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la influencia de los hábitos de los padres en los de sus hijos. Métodos. Se estudió a los adolescentes de 13 a 15 años de la isla de Mallorca y a sus padres. Mediante métodos previamente validados se recabó su nivel socioeconómico, sus hábitos (ingesta de alcohol, tabaquismo, práctica de deportes y consumo de televisión), y el rendimiento académico de los adolescentes. Resultados. Participaron 4.019 adolescentes y 7.359 padres. Un bajo nivel socioeconómico se asoció con un mayor riesgo de que los adolescentes fumaran (OR=3,86, IC 95%: 2,30-6,48; p=0,000), bebieran alcohol (OR=1,88; 95% IC: 1,40-2,54; p=0,000), suspendieran alguna asignatura (OR=6,37, IC 95%: 4,23-9,61; p=0,000), vieran 2 horas diarias de televisión (OR=1,97;95%IC: 1,69-2,29; p=0,000), y no practicaran deporte (OR=0,55, IC 95%: 0,38-0,80; p=0,001). Además, en el riesgo de que fumaran influyó que la madre bebiera (OR 1,76 IC95% 1,24-1,51; p=0,002), en el de que suspendieran los hijos (no las hijas) que los padres fumaran (OR 1,89 IC95% 1,33-2,68; p=0,000), y los correspondientes hábitos en los padres aumentaron la probabilidad de que los adolescentes bebieran alcohol (OR 1,91 IC95% 1,43-2,51; p=0,000), vieran más de 2 horas diarias la televisión (OR 1,97 IC95% 1,68-2,29; p=0,000) e hicieran deporte (OR 6,67 IC95% 2,57-14,96; p=0,000). Conclusiones. Un bajo nivel socioeconómico se asocia a un mayor riesgo de que los adolescentes españoles fumen, beban alcohol, suspendan, vean más televisión y no practiquen deporte. Además, el que la madre beba se asocia a un mayor riesgo de que sus hijos fumen y beban, y el que ambos padres beban se asocia a un mayor riesgo de que sus hijos lo hagan. La práctica de deportes y el tiempo que pasan ante el televisor los padres influyen en los hábitos correspondientes por parte de sus hijos, pero no influyen en que el adolescente beba o fume.

          Translated abstract

          Bakground. Substance use is quite common among adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of parents on their habits. Methods. The study sample was made up of all 13 to 15 year old schoolchildren from the island of Majorca and their parents. Information was collected, with validated instruments, on parents’ and adolescents’ alcohol intake, smoking, socioeconomic status, sports and television watching, as well as adolescents’ academic performance. Results. The study included 4,019 schoolchildren and 7,359 parents. Parents belonging to a low socioeconomic level was the principal variable related to parental influence on smoking children (OR=3.86, 95% CI: 2.30-6.48, p=0.000), drinking (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.40-2.54; p=0.000), failing courses (OR=6.37, 95% CI: 4.23-9.61; p=0.000), watching TV 2 hours/day (OR=1.97; 95%IC:1.69-2.29; p=0.000), and not practicing sports (OR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.38-0.80; p=0.001). Additionally, the mother’s drinking had an influence on the children’s smoking (OR=1.76, 95% CI: 1.24-1.51; p=0.002), and the parents’ smoking had an influence on the children’s (boys, not girls) failing courses (OR=1.89, 95% CI: 1.33-2.68; p=0.000). The corresponding habits in parents increased the probability that adolescents drank (OR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.43-2.51; p=0.000), watched TV 2 hours/day (OR=1.97, 95% CI: 1.68-2.29; p=0.000), and practiced sports (OR=6.67, 95% CI: 2.57-14.96; p=0.000). Conclusions. A low socioeconomic level is associated with a greater risk of smoking, drinking, failing courses and not practicing sports in the adolescents. Additionally, the mother’s drinking is associated with a greater risk of her children smoking and drinking, and both parents’ drinking is associated with a greater risk of their children doing so. The practice of sports and the time spent watching television by the parents have an influence on the corresponding habits in their children, but have no influence on the adolescents’ smoking or drinking.

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          Most cited references 104

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          Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: implications for substance abuse prevention.

          The authors suggest that the most promising route to effective strategies for the prevention of adolescent alcohol and other drug problems is through a risk-focused approach. This approach requires the identification of risk factors for drug abuse, identification of methods by which risk factors have been effectively addressed, and application of these methods to appropriate high-risk and general population samples in controlled studies. The authors review risk and protective factors for drug abuse, assess a number of approaches for drug abuse prevention potential with high-risk groups, and make recommendations for research and practice.
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            Reviewing theories of adolescent substance use: Organizing pieces in the puzzle.

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              Sports participation and health-related behaviors among US youth.

              To examine the relationship between sports participation and health-related behaviors among high school students. Cross-sectional design using data from the 1997 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey. A nationally representative sample of 14,221 US high school students. Prevalence of sports participation among males and females from 3 ethnic groups and its associations with other health behaviors, including diet, tobacco use, alcohol and illegal drug use, sexual activity, violence, and weight loss practices. Approximately 70% of male students and 53% of female students reported participating on 1 or more sports teams in school and/or nonschool settings; rates varied substantially by age, sex, and ethnicity. Male sports participants were more likely than male nonparticipants to report fruit and vegetable consumption on the previous day and less likely to report cigarette smoking, cocaine and other illegal drug use, and trying to lose weight. Compared with female nonparticipants, female sports participants were more likely to report consumption of vegetables on the previous day and less likely to report having sexual intercourse in the past 3 months. Among white males and females, several other beneficial health behaviors were associated with sports participation. A few associations with negative health behaviors were observed in African American and Hispanic subgroups. Sports participation is highly prevalent among US high school students, and is associated with numerous positive health behaviors and few negative health behaviors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                resp
                Revista Española de Salud Pública
                Rev. Esp. Salud Publica
                Ministerio de Sanidad, Consumo y Bienestar social (Madrid, Madrid, Spain )
                1135-5727
                2173-9110
                December 2008
                : 82
                : 6
                : 677-689
                Affiliations
                Madrid orgnameFundación Kovacs de Madrid orgdiv1Departamento Científico
                Palma de Mallorca orgnameFundación Kovacs de Palma de Mallorca orgdiv1Departamento Científico
                Palma de Mallorca orgnameUniversidad de las Islas Baleares orgdiv1Departamento de Ciencias de la Educación orgdiv2Área de Educación Física y Deportiva
                Article
                S1135-57272008000600008 S1135-5727(08)08200600008
                10.1590/s1135-57272008000600008

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 41, Pages: 13
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