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      A pioneer issue of Neuroimmunomodulation is now dedicated to “COVID-19, Hormones and Brain”. It will show an article collection on this topic from basic and clinical science, that helps to understand this fundamental aspect. The article should demonstrate crosstalk between hormones and viral infection in the context of COVID-19.

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      Woodhouse-Sakati Syndrome in an Israeli-Arab Family Presenting with Youth-Onset Diabetes Mellitus and Delayed Puberty

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          Abstract

          Background and Objective: Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome (WSS) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by a combination of hypogonadism, alopecia, diabetes mellitus (DM), mental retardation and extrapyramidal signs, not described previously in Israel. Our aim was to study the clinical and genetic characteristics of the extended family of a 16-year-old female who presented with new-onset DM and had delayed puberty on physical examination. Methods: The primary physician’s medical charts of 9 members of the proband’s consanguineous Israeli-Arab family were reviewed. Hormonal, metabolic and antibody profile, imaging studies and molecular analysis were performed in 4 phenotypically compatible members, including the proband. Results: Four subjects, 2 females and 2 males, had DM, absent pubertal development and similar appearance. None had extrapyramidal signs. The patients were homozygous for a one-base deletion mutation (c.436delC) in the C2orf37 gene. Conclusion: We describe the first Israeli-Arab family with phenotype and genotype of WSS, imitating autoimmune DM with gonadal failure.

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          Mutations in C2orf37, encoding a nucleolar protein, cause hypogonadism, alopecia, diabetes mellitus, mental retardation, and extrapyramidal syndrome.

          Hypogonadism, alopecia, diabetes mellitus, mental retardation, and extrapyramidal syndrome (also referenced as Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder. We have identified a founder mutation consisting of a single base-pair deletion in C2orf37 in eight families of Saudi origin. Three other loss-of-function mutations were subsequently discovered in patients of different ethnicities. The gene encodes a nucleolar protein of unknown function, and the cellular phenotype observed in patient lymphoblasts implicates a role for the nucleolus in the pathogenesis of this disease. Our findings expand the list of human disorders linked to the nucleolus and further highlight the developmental and/or maintenance functions of this organelle.
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            A syndrome of hypogonadism, alopecia, diabetes mellitus, mental retardation, deafness, and ECG abnormalities.

            A distinct and previously undescribed syndrome has been observed in six Saudi Arabian patients from two highly inbred families. The parents were normal, indicating an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. All the patients have a distinctive facial appearance, hypogonadism, sparse or absent hair, diabetes mellitus, mental retardation, mild deafness, and variable S-T and T wave abnormalities on the electrocardiograph.
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              C2orf37 mutational spectrum in Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome patients.

              Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome (WSS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that encompasses hypogonadism, deafness, alopecia, mental retardation, diabetes mellitus and progressive extrapyramidal defects. The syndrome is caused by mutation of the C2orf37 gene. Here we studied a cohort of seven new cases from three ethnic backgrounds, presenting with the hallmarks of WSS, in an effort to extend the mutational spectrum of this disorder. Genetic analysis revealed a novel mutation in each of the four families investigated, of which three were nonsense mutations and the fourth was a splice site ablation. We also examined a separate collection of 11 cases presenting with deafness and dystonia, two constituents of WSS, but found no pathogenic changes. This study doubles the number of known mutations for this disorder, confirms that truncating mutations in C2orf37 are the only known cause of WSS, and suggests that mutations in this gene do not contribute significantly to cases presenting with isolated elements of WSS such as deafness and dystonia. The lack of correlation between clinically expressivity of WSS and the site of the eight truncating mutations strongly supports that they are equally null, while the intrafamilial variability argues for an important role of modifiers in this disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRP
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2011
                May 2011
                08 February 2011
                : 75
                : 5
                : 362-366
                Affiliations
                aPediatric Endocrinology and bNeurology Department, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, cPediatric Endocrinology and dDepartment of Virology and Developmental Genetics and National Institute of Biotechnology Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, and eClalit Health Services, Ramla, Israel
                Author notes
                *Marianna Rachmiel, MD, Department of Pediatrics B, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Tel Aviv 70300 (Israel), Tel. +972 8 977 9133, E-Mail rmarianna@gmail.com
                Article
                323441 Horm Res Paediatr 2011;75:362–366
                10.1159/000323441
                21304230
                7727fb7e-a5fd-4ed0-b96a-f0b7667f3f6e
                © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Endocrinology & Diabetes,Neurology,Nutrition & Dietetics,Sexual medicine,Internal medicine,Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                Puberty,Diabetes mellitus,Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome,Hypogonadism

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