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      Synergistic combination therapy of lung cancer using paclitaxel- and triptolide-coloaded lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticles

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for the majority of lung cancer. Lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) combine the advantages of both polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes into a single delivery platform. In this study, we engineered LPNs as the co-delivery system of paclitaxel (PTX) and triptolide (TL) to achieve synergistic therapeutic effect and reduced drug resistance.

          Materials and methods

          In this study, PTX- and TL-coloaded LPNs (P/T-LPNs) were fabricated by nanoprecipitation method using lipid and polymeric materials. The P/T-LPNs combination effects on human lung cancer cells were studied. Therapeutic potentials of P/T-LPNs were further determined using lung cancer cells-bearing mice model.

          Results

          The average particle sizes of LPNs were around 160 nm, with narrow size distribution below 0.2. The zeta potential value of LPNs was about −30 mV. The encapsulating efficiency (EE) of PTX and TL loaded in LPNs was over 85%. The cytotoxicity of dual drug loaded LPNs was higher than single drug loaded LPNs. The combination therapy showed synergistic when PTX:TL weight ratio was 5:3, indicating the synergy effects of the LPNs. In vivo tumor growth curve of the experimental group was more gentle opposed to the control group, and tumor volumes of P/T-LPNs and control group were 392 and 1,737 mm 3, respectively. The inhibition rate on day 20 was 77.4% in the P/T-LPNs group, which is higher than the free drugs solution.

          Conclusion

          The in vivo and in vitro results proved the synergetic effect of the two drugs coloaded in LPNs on the lung cancer xenografts, with the least systemic toxic side effect.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Quantitative analysis of dose-effect relationships: the combined effects of multiple drugs or enzyme inhibitors.

           P Talalay,  T C Chou (1984)
          A generalized method for analyzing the effects of multiple drugs and for determining summation, synergism and antagonism has been proposed. The derived, generalized equations are based on kinetic principles. The method is relatively simple and is not limited by whether the dose-effect relationships are hyperbolic or sigmoidal, whether the effects of the drugs are mutually exclusive or nonexclusive, whether the ligand interactions are competitive, noncompetitive or uncompetitive, whether the drugs are agonists or antagonists, or the number of drugs involved. The equations for the two most widely used methods for analyzing synergism, antagonism and summation of effects of multiple drugs, the isobologram and fractional product concepts, have been derived and been shown to have limitations in their applications. These two methods cannot be used indiscriminately. The equations underlying these two methods can be derived from a more generalized equation previously developed by us (59). It can be shown that the isobologram is valid only for drugs whose effects are mutually exclusive, whereas the fractional product method is valid only for mutually nonexclusive drugs which have hyperbolic dose-effect curves. Furthermore, in the isobol method, it is laborious to find proper combinations of drugs that would produce an iso-effective curve, and the fractional product method tends to give indication of synergism, since it underestimates the summation of the effect of mutually nonexclusive drugs that have sigmoidal dose-effect curves. The method described herein is devoid of these deficiencies and limitations. The simplified experimental design proposed for multiple drug-effect analysis has the following advantages: It provides a simple diagnostic plot (i.e., the median-effect plot) for evaluating the applicability of the data, and provides parameters that can be directly used to obtain a general equation for the dose-effect relation; the analysis which involves logarithmic conversion and linear regression can be readily carried out with a simple programmable electronic calculator and does not require special graph paper or tables; and the simplicity of the equation allows flexibility of application and the use of a minimum number of data points. This method has been used to analyze experimental data obtained from enzymatic, cellular and animal systems.
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            Triptolide and its expanding multiple pharmacological functions.

             Qiuyan Liu (2011)
            Triptolide, a diterpene triepoxide, is a major active component of extracts derived from the medicinal plant Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TWHF). Triptolide has multiple pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, immune modulation, antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity. So, triptolide has been widely used to treat inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases, organ transplantation and even tumors. Triptolide cannot only induce tumor cell apoptosis directly, but can also enhance apoptosis induced by cytotoxic agents such as TNF-α, TRAIL and chemotherapeutic agents regardless of p53 phenotype by inhibiting NFκB activation. Recently, the cellular targets of triptolide, such as MKP-1, HSP, 5-Lox, RNA polymerase and histone methyl-transferases had been demonstrated. However, the clinical use of triptolide is often limited by its severe toxicity and water-insolubility. New water-soluble triptolide derivatives have been designed and synthesized, such as PG490-88 or F60008, which have been shown to be safe and potent antitumor agent. Importantly, PG490-88 has been approved entry into Phase I clinical trial for treatment of prostate cancer in USA. This review will focus on these breakthrough findings of triptolide and its implications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Nanomedicine: An effective tool in cancer therapy

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                25 September 2018
                : 12
                : 3199-3209
                Affiliations
                Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tumor Hospital of Shaanxi Province, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China, songyrthsx@ 123456126.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yangrong Song, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tumor Hospital of Shaanxi Province, No 309 Yanta West Road, Xi’an 710061, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 29 8527 6155, Email songyrthsx@ 123456126.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-12-3199
                10.2147/DDDT.S172199
                6161729
                © 2018 Liu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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