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      Reduction in exacerbation of COPD in patients of advanced age using the Japanese Kampo medicine Dai-kenchu-to: a retrospective cohort study

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Patients with symptomatic COPD are recommended to use inhaled bronchodilators containing long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs). However, bronchodilators may cause gastrointestinal adverse effects due to anticholinergic reactions, especially in advanced-age patients with COPD. Dai-kenchu-to (TU-100, Da Jian Zhong Tang in Chinese) is the most frequently prescribed Japanese herbal Kampo medicine and is often prescribed to control abdominal bloating and constipation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of Dai-kenchu-to as a supportive therapy in advanced-age patients with COPD.

          Patients and methods

          We used the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination inpatient database and identified patients aged ≥75 years who were hospitalized for COPD exacerbation. We then compared the risk of re-hospitalization for COPD exacerbation or death between patients with and without Dai-kenchu-to using 1-to-4 propensity score matching. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the two groups. We performed subgroup analyses for patients with and without LAMA therapy.

          Results

          Patients treated with Dai-kenchu-to had a significantly lower risk of re-hospitalization or death after discharge; the HR was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.67–0.99) in 1-to-4 propensity score matching. Subgroup analysis of LAMA users showed a significant difference in re-hospitalization or death, while subgroup analysis of LAMA non-users showed no significant difference.

          Conclusion

          Our findings indicate that Dai-kenchu-to may have improved the tolerability of LAMA in advanced-age patients with COPD and, therefore, reduced the risk of re-hospitalization or death from COPD exacerbation. Dai-kenchu-to may be recommended as a useful supportive therapy for advanced-age patients with COPD.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Daikenchuto (TU-100) ameliorates colon microvascular dysfunction via endogenous adrenomedullin in Crohn's disease rat model.

          Daikenchuto (TU-100), a traditional Japanese medicine, has been reported to up-regulate the adrenomedullin (ADM)/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) system, which is involved in intestinal vasodilatation. The microvascular dysfunction of the intestine in Crohn's disease (CD), due to down-regulation of the ADM/CGRP system, is etiologically related to the recurrence of CD. Therefore, we investigated the vasodilatory effect of TU-100 in a CD rat model. Colitis was induced by the rectal instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Laser Doppler blood flowmetry was used to measure colonic blood flow. ADM, CGRP, and their receptors in the ischemic colon were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme immunoassays. Additionally, we determined whether the intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6 released ADM in response to TU-100. TU-100 increased blood flow in ischemic segments of the colon but not in hyperemic segments. Pretreatment with an antibody to ADM abolished the vasodilatory effect of TU-100. CGRP levels and βCGRP mRNA expression were decreased in the ischemic colon, while protein and mRNA levels of ADM were unchanged. Hydroxy α-sanshool, the main constituent of TU-100, was the most active component in improving blood flow. Additionally, both TU-100 and hydroxy α-sanshool enhanced the release of ADM from IEC-6 cells. In the ischemic colon, endogenous βCGRP, but not ADM, was decreased. Thus, it was concluded that TU-100 ameliorated microvascular dysfunction by the up-regulation of endogenous ADM in the CD rat model. TU-100 may be a possible therapeutic agent for gastrointestinal ischemia-related diseases including CD.
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            Disturbed intestinal integrity in patients with COPD: effects of activities of daily living.

            COPD is accepted to be a multicomponent disease with various comorbidities. To our knowledge, the contribution of the GI tract to the systemic manifestation of COPD has never been investigated. This metabolically active organ may experience recurring local oxygen deficits during daily life, leading to disturbed intestinal integrity in patients with COPD.
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              Complementary and synergistic therapeutic effects of compounds found in Kampo medicine: analysis of daikenchuto

              Herbal medicines have been used in Japan for more than 1500 years and traditional Japanese medicines (Kampo medicines) are now fully integrated into the modern healthcare system. In total, 148 Kampo formulae are officially approved as prescription drugs and covered by the national health insurance system in Japan. However, despite their long track record of clinical use, the multi-targeted, multi-component properties of Kampo medicines, which are fundamentally different from Western medicines, have made it difficult to create a suitable framework for conducting well-designed, large-scale clinical trials. In turn, this has led to misconceptions among western trained physicians concerning the paucity of scientific evidence for the beneficial effects of Kampo medicines. Fortunately, there has been a recent surge in scientifically robust data from basic and clinical studies for some of the Kampo medicines, e.g., daikenchuto (TU-100). Numerous basic and clinical studies on TU-100, including placebo-controlled double-blind studies for various gastrointestinal disorders, and absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies, have been conducted or are in the process of being conducted in both Japan and the USA. Clinical studies suggest that TU-100 is beneficial for postoperative complications, especially ileus and abdominal bloating. ADME and basic studies indicate that the effect of TU-100 is a composite of numerous actions mediated by multiple compounds supplied via multiple routes. In addition to known mechanisms of action via enteric/sensory nerve stimulation, novel mechanisms via the TRPA1 channel and two pore domain potassium channels have recently been elucidated. TU-100 compounds target these channels with and without absorption, both before and after metabolic activation by enteric flora, with different timings and possibly with synergism.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2019
                27 December 2018
                : 14
                : 129-139
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Health Services Research, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, jo-taisuke@ 123456umin.ac.jp
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, jo-taisuke@ 123456umin.ac.jp
                [3 ]Data Science Center, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan
                [4 ]Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Health Economics, School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
                [5 ]Department of Health Policy and Informatics, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Taisuke Jo, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan, Tel +81 3 5841 1147, Fax +81 3 5841 1888, Email jo-taisuke@ 123456umin.ac.jp
                Article
                copd-14-129
                10.2147/COPD.S181916
                6311323
                © 2019 Jo et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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