03 July 2014
In 2013, 10 topics were selected for major clinical research advances in gynecologic oncology; these included three topics regarding cervical cancer, three regarding ovarian cancer, two regarding endometrial cancer, and one each regarding breast cancer and radiation oncology. For cervical cancer, bevacizumab was first demonstrated to exhibit outstanding clinical efficacy in a recurrent, metastatic setting. Regarding cervical cancer screening, visual inspections with acetic acid in low-resource settings, p16/Ki-67 double staining, and the follow-up results of four randomized controlled trials of human papillomavirus-based screening methods were reviewed. Laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy before chemoradiation for locally advanced cervical cancer was the final topic for cervical cancer. Regarding front-line ovarian cancer therapies, dose-dense paclitaxel and carboplatin, intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and other targeted agents administered according to combination or maintenance schedules were discussed. Regarding recurrent ovarian cancer treatment, cediranib, olaparib, and farletuzumab were discussed for platinum-sensitive disease. The final overall survival data associated with a combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy for platinum-resistant disease were briefly summarized. For endometrial cancer, the potential clinical efficacy of metformin, an antidiabetic drug, in obese patients was followed by integrated genomic analyses from the Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. For breast cancer, three remarkable advances were reviewed: the long-term effects of continued adjuvant tamoxifen for 10 years, the effects of 2-year versus 1-year adjuvant trastuzumab for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive disease, and the approval of pertuzumab in a neoadjuvant setting with a pathologic complete response as the surrogate endpoint. Finally, the recent large studies of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer were briefly summarized.