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      Do parents play different roles in drinking behaviours of male and female adolescents? A longitudinal follow-up study

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          Gender differences in the associations between adolescent drinking behaviour, and perceived parental drinking behaviours and attitudes towards underage drinking, were investigated.


          Data were drawn from two cohorts in the Child and Adolescent Behaviours in Long-term Evolution project. We used data from 2009 to 2006, when cohorts 1 and 2, respectively, were in grade 9. No cohort effect was found, so the two cohorts were pooled; 3972 students (1999 boys and 1973 girls) participated in the study. The major variables included adolescent drinking behaviours over the last month, and perceived parental drinking behaviours and parental attitudes towards underage drinking. The effects of the combination of parental drinking behaviours, and attitudes on the drinking behaviours of male and female adolescents, were analysed by logistic regression.


          The drinking behaviour of boys was correlated with the drinking behaviours and attitudes of their fathers but not with those of their mothers. Among boys, having a non-drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.27, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.46), a non-drinking father who was favourable towards underage drinking (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.94), or a drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.85) significantly decreased the likelihood of alcohol consumption, whereas maternal behaviour and attitude were not significant influences. Among girls, having a non-drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.91) or a non-drinking father who was favourable towards underage drinking (OR=0.51, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.83) significantly decreased the likelihood of alcohol consumption, as did having a non-drinking mother who was against underage drinking (OR=0.23, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.60).


          The influences of fathers and mothers on the drinking behaviour of their adolescent children differed by offspring gender.

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          Most cited references 30

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          The role of alcohol-specific socialization in adolescents' drinking behaviour.

          To determine which alcohol-specific socialization practices are related to adolescents' alcohol use, and to investigate whether parents differ in their alcohol-specific socialization towards their children. In a sample of 428 families, both parents and two adolescents (aged 13-16 years) completed a questionnaire at home about alcohol-specific parenting and their own alcohol use. Based on the reports of each family member, three different models of alcohol-specific socialization were formulated: from the perspective of the siblings, the mother and the father. Results of structural equation modelling generally showed the same associations between alcohol-specific socialization and drinking of younger and older adolescents. The strongest association was found for providing alcohol-specific rules. Applying strict rules about alcohol use was negatively related to adolescents' alcohol use; this was also the case for having confidence in the effectiveness of alcohol-specific socialization. Unexpectedly, frequency of communication about alcohol issues was positively associated with alcohol consumption of adolescents. This study is one of the first to examine associations between alcohol-specific socialization and adolescents' drinking using a between- and a within-family design. Results showed strong associations between alcohol-specific socialization (particularly of enforcing rules) and adolescent alcohol use. Although parents strongly differentiated their socialization practices between children, no differences in associations between alcohol-specific socialization and drinking were found between older and younger adolescents.
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            Trajectories of drinking from 18 to 26 years: identification and prediction.

            To identify developmental trajectories of drinking between the ages of 18 and 26 years and to identify variables, amenable to policy influence, which predict these trajectories. Longitudinal data were analysed using latent class mixture modelling. Participants were interviewed in a central location. Provincial city birth cohort, cross-national studies suggest findings are generalizable to other similar market economies. The frequency of drinking over the past year and the typical quantity consumed per drinking occasion were computed from five location-specific questions. Measures used to predict membership of trajectory groups were ease of access to alcohol, drinking on licensed premises, response to alcohol advertising, educational achievement, parental consumption, age of onset of regular drinking and living arrangements. Three trajectories of quantities consumed showed reduced consumption after age 21 but one trajectory showed marked increases. Three trajectories of frequency of drinking increased or remained stable over time. Access to licensed premises at age 18 had the most significant impact on membership of the trajectory groups and educational achievement had a significant impact on membership of the heavier quantity trajectory groups. Parental alcohol consumption, access to alcohol at 15 years, liking for alcohol advertising, living arrangement and age of onset of regular drinking also influenced trajectory membership. Quantity and frequency of drinking in adolescence and early adulthood had different trajectories. Membership of heavier drinking groups was affected by environmental influences which are subject to policy change, particularly that of earlier access to licensed premises. In a small group high-quantity consumption did not decrease at age 26.
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              Cultural and gender convergence in adolescent drunkenness: evidence from 23 European and North American countries.

              To investigate time-trend changes in the frequency of drunkenness among European and North American adolescents. Cross-sectional surveys in the 1997/1998 and 2005/2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC). High schools in 23 countries. A sample of 77 586 adolescents aged 15 years was analyzed by means of hierarchical linear modeling. The frequency of drunkenness. We observed a significant increase of about 40% in the mean frequency of drunkenness in all 7 participating Eastern European countries. This increase was evident among both genders, but most consistently among girls. Meanwhile, it declined in 13 of 16 Western countries, about 25% on average. Declines in Western countries were particularly notable among boys and in North America, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. Despite this gender convergence, with few exceptions (Greenland, Norway, United Kingdom) boys continued to have a higher frequency of drunkenness in 2005/2006 than girls. The confirmed cultural convergence implies that adoption and implementation of evidence-based measures to mitigate the frequency of adolescent drunkenness such as tax increases and restricting alcohol access and advertisement should get the same priority in Eastern European countries as in Western countries. Policy measures that might facilitate decreases in drunkenness such as server training and the promotion of alcohol-free leisure-time activities should be reinforced in Western countries. The gender convergence implies that prevention policy should be less exclusively focused on male adolescents.

                Author and article information

                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                15 April 2015
                : 5
                : 4
                [1 ]Department of Nursing, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology , Hsinchu, Taiwan
                [2 ]Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes , Miaoli, Taiwan
                [3 ]Department of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University , Tai-Chung, Taiwan
                [4 ]Department of Family and Community Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital , Tai-Chung, Taiwan
                [5 ]Institute of Health Policy and Management, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University , Taipei, Taiwan
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Hsing-Yi Chang; hsingyi@
                Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:



                alcohol, public health, school


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