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      Energy expenditure during flight in relation to body mass: effects of natural increases in mass and artificial load in Rose Coloured Starlings

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          Rose Coloured Starlings ( Sturnus roseus) flew repeatedly for several hours in a wind tunnel while undergoing spontaneous variation in body mass. The treatments were as follows: flying unrestrained (U), with a control harness of 1.2% of their body mass (C), or with a harness of 7.4% of their body mass, which was either applied immediately before the flight (L S) or at least 9 days in advance (L L). Energy expenditure during flight (e f in W) was measured with the Doubly Labelled Water method. Flight costs in L S and L L were not significantly different and therefore were pooled (L). The harness itself did not affect e f, i.e. U and C flights were not different. e f was allometrically related with body mass m (in g). The slopes were not significantly different between the treatments, but e f was increased by 5.4% in L compared to C flights (log 10(e f) = 0.050 + 0.47 × log 10( m) for C, and log 10(e f) = 0.073 + 0.47 × log 10( m) for L). The difference in e f between C, L S and L L was best explained by taking the transported mass m transp (in g) instead of m into account (log 10(e f) = −0.08 + 0.54 × log 10( m transp)). Flight costs increased to a lesser extent than expected from interspecific allometric comparison or aerodynamic theory, regardless of whether the increase in mass occurred naturally or artificially. We did not observe an effect of treatment on breast muscle size and wingbeat frequency. We propose that the relatively low costs at a high mass are rather a consequence of immediate adjustments in physiology and/or flight behaviour than of long-term adaptations.

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          Optimal Bird Migration: The Relative Importance of Time, Energy, and Safety

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            Optimum fuel loads in migratory birds: distinguishing between time and energy minimization

            By combining the potential flight range of fuel with different migration policies, the optimum departure fuel load for migratory birds can be calculated. We evaluate the optimum departure fuel loads associated with minimization of three different currencies: (1) overall time of migration, (2) energy cost of transport and (3) total energy coast of migration. Predicted departure loads are highest for (1), lowest for (2) and intermediate for (3). Further, currencies (1) and (3) show departure loads dependent on the fuel accumulation rate at stopovers, while (2) is not affected by variation in the rate of fuel accumulation. Furthermore, fuel loads optimized with respect to currency (3) will differ depending on the size (body mass) of the bird and the energy density of the fuel. We review ecological situations in which the various currencies may apply, and suggest how a combination of stopover decisions and observations of flight speed may be used to decide among the three cases of migration policies. Finally, we calculate that the total energy cost of migration is roughly divided between flight and stopover as 1:2. The total time of migration is similarly divided between flight and stopover as 1:7, probably with a relatively longer stopover time in larger species. Hence, we may expect strong selection pressures to optimize the fuel accumulation strategies during stopover episodes.Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited
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              Theory of use of the turnover rates of body water for measuring energy and material balance


                Author and article information

                +49-8152-373148 , +49-8152-373133 ,
                J Comp Physiol [B]
                Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
                Springer-Verlag (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                15 May 2008
                August 2008
                : 178
                : 6
                : 767-777
                [1 ]Department of Biological Rhythms and Behaviour, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Von-der-Tann-Str. 7, 82346 Andechs, Germany
                [2 ]Zoological Laboratory, University of Groningen, PO Box 14, 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands
                [3 ]Centre for Isotope Research, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
                Author notes

                Communicated by G. Heldmaier.

                © The Author(s) 2008
                Original Paper
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag 2008

                Anatomy & Physiology

                load, harness, bird flight, flight costs, body mass


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