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      Anorexia and Serum Leptin Levels in Hemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Background and Aims: Hyperleptinemia is a common feature in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, the role of increased serum leptin levels in the pathogenesis of HD-related anorexia is still controversial. The purpose of the present prospective study was to ascertain whether hyperleptinemia is causally implicated in the pathogenesis of HD-related anorexia. Methods: We measured the serum leptin levels and the serum leptin/body mass index (BMI) ratio in 24 healthy subjects and in 49 end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance HD. HD patients were subdivided into anorexic (14/49, 28.5%) and non-anorexic (35/49, 71.5%) according to a questionnaire discriminating for the presence of anorexia-related symptoms. Results: Calorie (kcal/kg/day) and protein (g/ kg/day) intakes were significantly lower in anorexic than in non-anorexic patients (20.1 ± 1.1 vs. 27.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.004, and 0.82 ± 0.05 vs. 1.19 ± 0.05, p = 0.001, respectively). Accordingly, serum albumin, total lymphocyte count, mid-arm muscle circumference, and the protein equivalence of nitrogen appearance (PNA) were significantly lower in anorexic patients. The serum leptin concentration (ng/ml) was significantly higher in HD patients than in controls, in males (15.33 ± 3.4 vs. 3.7 ± 0.3, p = 0.003) and in females (42.3 ± 7.2 vs. 10.5 ± 1.3, p = 0.03). Similarly, serum leptin/BMI ratio was significantly higher in HD patients than in controls, in males (0.56 ± 0.1 vs. 0.16 ± 0.02, p = 0.0028) and in females (1.8 ± 0.2 vs. 0.4 ± 0.04, p < 0.0001). However, serum leptin levels were similar in anorexic and in non-anorexic patients, in males (15.3 ± 5.6 vs. 16.9 ± 4.2, p = 0.85) and in females (46.6 ± 12.9 vs. 47.4 ± 9.4, p = 0.96). No differences were observed between the 2 groups in the serum leptin/BMI ratio, in males (0.59 ± 0.2 vs. 0.58 ± 0.14, p = 0.92) and in females (1.5 ± 0.4 vs. 1.8 ± 0.3, p = 0.94). Similarly, no statistically significant differences in terms of serum leptin levels and leptin/BMI ratio were observed between patients with dietary energy intake of <30 or ≧30 kcal/kg/day and between those with a dietary protein intake of <1.2 or ≧1.2 g/kg/day. No significant correlations were found between serum leptin levels and PNA, albumin, cholesterol, total lymphocytes number, weight change, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, ferritin, and complement. Conclusion: The present results indicate that mechanisms other than increases in serum leptin levels might be involved in the pathogenesis of HD-related anorexia.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Cerebrospinal fluid leptin levels: relationship to plasma levels and to adiposity in humans.

          The adipocyte hormone, leptin (OB protein), is proposed to be an "adiposity signal" that acts in the brain to lower food intake and adiposity. As plasma leptin levels are elevated in most overweight individuals, obesity may be associated with leptin resistance. To investigate the mechanisms underlying brain leptin uptake and to determine whether reduced uptake may contribute to leptin resistance, we measured immunoreactive leptin levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 53 human subjects. Leptin concentrations in CSF were strongly correlated to the plasma level in a nonlinear manner (r = 0.92; p = 0.0001). Like levels in plasma, CSF leptin levels were correlated to body mass index (r = 0.43; p = 0.001), demonstrating that plasma leptin enters human cerebrospinal fluid in proportion to body adiposity. However, the efficiency of this uptake (measured as the CSF:plasma leptin ratio) was lower among those in the highest as compared with the lowest plasma leptin quintile (5.4-fold difference). We hypothesize that a saturable mechanism mediates CSF leptin transport, and that reduced efficiency of brain leptin delivery among obese individuals with high plasma leptin levels results in apparent leptin resistance.
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            Decreased cerebrospinal-fluid/serum leptin ratio in obesity: a possible mechanism for leptin resistance

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              Effect of Fasting, Refeeding, and Dietary Fat Restriction on Plasma Leptin Levels

               D Weigle (1997)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2004
                July 2004
                17 November 2004
                : 97
                : 3
                : c76-c82
                Affiliations
                aIstituto di Clinica Chirurgica, bIstituto di Medicina Nucleare, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, e cDipartimento di Medicina Clinica, Università La Sapienza, Roma, Italia
                Article
                78634 Nephron Clin Pract 2004;97:c76–c82
                10.1159/000078634
                15292683
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 38, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/78634
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Hemodialysis, Anorexia, End-stage renal disease, Leptin

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