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      Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1 Causing End-Stage Renal Disease in a 45-Year-Old Patient

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          Abstract

          Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is caused by deficiency of peroxisomal alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase which is in humans exclusively expressed in liver cells. The disease is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, and initial symptoms usually occur in early childhood. Up to the age of 25 years, 90% of the patients are symptomatic, and many patients develop end-stage renal failure. Pronounced medical care is necessary in PH1 patients to prevent generalized oxalosis with complications due to bone disease and peripheral gangrene. The rather short survival of patients on hemodialysis is caused by sudden arrhythmias and heart block. As no dialysis procedure is able to remove the daily produced oxalate, early transplantation is mandatory. Our 45-year-old patient is remarkable on the basis of the late manifestations of PH1. The diagnosis was delayed by unspecific symptoms of nephrolithiasis with recurrent pyelonephritis. Clinical course and diagnostic cornerstones of primary hyperoxaluria are outlined. The principles of conservative treatment and experiences with dialysis and transplantation are discussed.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase deficiency in primary hyperoxaluria type I.

          Activities of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase in the livers of two patients with primary hyperoxaluria type I were substantially lower than those found in five control human livers. Detailed subcellular fractionation of one of the hyperoxaluric livers, compared with a control liver, showed that there was a complete absence of peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase. This enzyme deficiency explains most of the biochemical characteristics of the disease and means that primary hyperoxaluria type I should be added to the rather select list of peroxisomal disorders.
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            Results of long-term treatment with orthophosphate and pyridoxine in patients with primary hyperoxaluria.

            The prognosis for patients with primary hyperoxaluria has been ominous, with the expectation of renal failure, poor results with transplantation, and early death. We studied the long-term effects of orthophosphate and pyridoxine therapy in 25 patients with primary hyperoxaluria who were treated for an average of 10 years (range, 0.3 to 26). Their mean age at the start of treatment was 12 years (median, 6; range, 0.5 to 32). We also studied the effect of orthophosphate and pyridoxine on urinary supersaturation with calcium oxalate, crystal inhibition using a seeded growth system, and crystal formation using scanning electron microscopy in 12 patients during three-day stays in the clinical research center. The mean (+/- SD) glomerular filtration rate at the start of treatment was 91 +/- 26 ml per minute per 1.73 m2. The median decline in glomerular filtration rates was 1.4 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area per year. The actuarial survival free of end-stage renal disease was 96, 89, 74, and 74 percent of 5, 10, 15, and 20 years, respectively. Treatment with orthophosphate and pyridoxine reduced urinary supersaturation with calcium oxalate from 8.3 +/- 3.0 to 2.1 +/- 1.7 kJ per mole at 38 degrees C (P < 0.001), increased the inhibition of calcium oxalate formation from 63 +/- 11 to 108 +/- 10 inhibitor units per 24 hours (P < 0.001), and improved the crystalluria score from 2.6 +/- 0.3 to 0.6 +/- 0.1 (P < 0.001). Treatment of patients with primary hyperoxaluria with orthophosphate and pyridoxine decreases urinary calcium oxalate crystallization and appears to preserve renal function.
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              Immunological heterogeneity of hepatic alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase in primary hyperoxaluria type 1

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2001
                2001
                22 January 2001
                : 87
                : 1
                : 80-84
                Affiliations
                aMedizinische Klinik I, Medizinische Universität Lübeck, und bKinderklinik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Deutschland
                Article
                45888 Nephron 2001;87:80–84
                10.1159/000045888
                11174030
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 28, Pages: 5
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45888
                Categories
                Case Report

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Primary hyperoxaluria, Oxalate, Dialysis, Transplantation, Oxalosis

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