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      Organic Cation Transporters in Health and Disease

      Pharmacological Reviews

      American Society for Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics (ASPET)

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          Abstract

          The organic cation transporters (OCTs) OCT1, OCT2, OCT3, novel OCT (OCTN)1, OCTN2, multidrug and toxin exclusion (MATE)1, and MATE kidney-specific 2 are polyspecific transporters exhibiting broadly overlapping substrate selectivities. They transport organic cations, zwitterions, and some uncharged compounds and operate as facilitated diffusion systems and/or antiporters. OCTs are critically involved in intestinal absorption, hepatic uptake, and renal excretion of hydrophilic drugs. They modulate the distribution of endogenous compounds such as thiamine, L-carnitine, and neurotransmitters. Sites of expression and functions of OCTs have important impact on energy metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of drugs, and on drug-drug interactions. In this work, an overview about the human OCTs is presented. Functional properties of human OCTs, including identified substrates and inhibitors of the individual transporters, are described. Sites of expression are compiled, and data on regulation of OCTs are presented. In addition, genetic variations of OCTs are listed, and data on their impact on transport, drug treatment, and diseases are reported. Moreover, recent data are summarized that indicate complex drug-drug interaction at OCTs, such as allosteric high-affinity inhibition of transport and substrate dependence of inhibitor efficacies. A hypothesis about the molecular mechanism of polyspecific substrate recognition by OCTs is presented that is based on functional studies and mutagenesis experiments in OCT1 and OCT2. This hypothesis provides a framework to imagine how observed complex drug-drug interactions at OCTs arise. Finally, preclinical in vitro tests that are performed by pharmaceutical companies to identify interaction of novel drugs with OCTs are discussed. Optimized experimental procedures are proposed that allow a gapless detection of inhibitory and transported drugs.

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          Most cited references 648

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          Membrane transporters in drug development.

          Membrane transporters can be major determinants of the pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy profiles of drugs. This presents several key questions for drug development, including which transporters are clinically important in drug absorption and disposition, and which in vitro methods are suitable for studying drug interactions with these transporters. In addition, what criteria should trigger follow-up clinical studies, and which clinical studies should be conducted if needed. In this article, we provide the recommendations of the International Transporter Consortium on these issues, and present decision trees that are intended to help guide clinical studies on the currently recognized most important drug transporter interactions. The recommendations are generally intended to support clinical development and filing of a new drug application. Overall, it is advised that the timing of transporter investigations should be driven by efficacy, safety and clinical trial enrolment questions (for example, exclusion and inclusion criteria), as well as a need for further understanding of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties of the drug molecule, and information required for drug labelling.
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            Major facilitator superfamily.

            The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is one of the two largest families of membrane transporters found on Earth. It is present ubiquitously in bacteria, archaea, and eukarya and includes members that can function by solute uniport, solute/cation symport, solute/cation antiport and/or solute/solute antiport with inwardly and/or outwardly directed polarity. All homologous MFS protein sequences in the public databases as of January 1997 were identified on the basis of sequence similarity and shown to be homologous. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the occurrence of 17 distinct families within the MFS, each of which generally transports a single class of compounds. Compounds transported by MFS permeases include simple sugars, oligosaccharides, inositols, drugs, amino acids, nucleosides, organophosphate esters, Krebs cycle metabolites, and a large variety of organic and inorganic anions and cations. Protein members of some MFS families are found exclusively in bacteria or in eukaryotes, but others are found in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. All permeases of the MFS possess either 12 or 14 putative or established transmembrane alpha-helical spanners, and evidence is presented substantiating the proposal that an internal tandem gene duplication event gave rise to a primordial MFS protein prior to divergence of the family members. All 17 families are shown to exhibit the common feature of a well-conserved motif present between transmembrane spanners 2 and 3. The analyses reported serve to characterize one of the largest and most diverse families of transport proteins found in living organisms.
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              Is Open Access

              Genetic effects on gene expression across human tissues

              (2017)
              Characterization of the molecular function of the human genome and its variation across individuals is essential for identifying the cellular mechanisms that underlie human genetic traits and diseases. The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project aims to characterize variation in gene expression levels across individuals and diverse tissues of the human body, many of which are not easily accessible. Here we describe genetic effects on gene expression levels across 44 human tissues. We find that local genetic variation affects gene expression levels for the majority of genes, and we further identify inter-chromosomal genetic effects for 93 genes and 112 loci. On the basis of the identified genetic effects, we characterize patterns of tissue specificity, compare local and distal effects, and evaluate the functional properties of the genetic effects. We also demonstrate that multi-tissue, multi-individual data can be used to identify genes and pathways affected by human disease-associated variation, enabling a mechanistic interpretation of gene regulation and the genetic basis of disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pharmacological Reviews
                Pharmacol Rev
                American Society for Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics (ASPET)
                0031-6997
                1521-0081
                December 18 2019
                January 2020
                December 18 2019
                January 2020
                : 72
                : 1
                : 253-319
                Article
                10.1124/pr.118.015578
                31852803
                © 2020

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