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      Impact of enzymatic tissue disintegration on the level of surface molecule expression and immune cell function

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          Immunological characterization of immune cells that reside in specific anatomic compartments often requires their isolation from the respective tissue on the basis of enzymatic tissue disintegration. Applying enzymatic digestion of primary splenocytes, we evaluated the impact of collagenase and dispase, two enzymes that are commonly used for the liberation of immune cells from tissues, on the detectability of 48 immunologically relevant surface molecules that are frequently used for flow cytometric identification, isolation, and characterization of immune cell subsets. Whereas collagenase treatment had only minor effects on surface expression of most molecules tested, dispase treatment considerably affected antibody-mediated detectability of the majority of surface markers in subsequent FACS analyses. This effect was long lasting and, in case of high-dose dispase treatment, evident for the majority of surface molecules even after 24 h of in vitro culture. Of note, high-dose dispase treatment not only affected surface expression of certain molecules but also impaired antigen-specific proliferation of CD 4+ and CD 8+ T cells. Together, our data indicate that enzymatic tissue disintegration can have profound effects on the expression of a variety of cell-surface molecules with direct consequences for phenotypic analysis, FACS- and MACS-based target cell isolation, and immune cell function in cell culture experiments.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Promiscuous gene expression in medullary thymic epithelial cells mirrors the peripheral self.

          Expression of peripheral antigens in the thymus has been implicated in T cell tolerance and autoimmunity. Here we identified medullary thymic epithelial cells as being a unique cell type that expresses a diverse range of tissue-specific antigens. We found that this promiscuous gene expression was a cell-autonomous property of medullary epithelial cells and was maintained during the entire period of thymic T cell output. It may facilitate tolerance induction to self-antigens that would otherwise be temporally or spatially secluded from the immune system. However, the array of promiscuously expressed self-antigens appeared random rather than selected and was not confined to secluded self-antigens.
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            Isolation and direct characterization of resident microglial cells from the normal and inflamed central nervous system.

            In addition to the major population of infiltrating leukocytes recovered from inflamed rat central nervous system (CNS), all of which expressed high levels of leukocyte common antigen CD45, many cells were coisolated that were MRC OX42+ (complement receptor 3/CD11b) but expressed low-to-moderate levels of CD45 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Most cells from normal CNS, in contrast, lay within this latter, CD45low population. From previous in situ immunohistochemical studies, the fortuitously isolated CD45low cells were probably resident (ramified) microglia. Using irradiation chimeras, we show that resident microglia respond to inflammation by upregulating CD45, CD4, and MHC class I molecules with a minority of these cells increasing their expression of MHC class II molecules. A 3- to 4-fold increase in the number of microglia isolated from inflamed CNS provided indirect evidence that the cells had proliferated. In normal CNS, a very small population of blood-derived CD45high-expressing cells are present; most MHC class II expression is associated with these few cells and not with the resident microglia.
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              Isolation and primary culture of murine alveolar type II cells.

              Previous attempts to culture mouse alveolar type II (ATII) cells have been hampered by limited purity and cell recovery. We have now obtained culturable ATII cells from female C57BL/6 mice at a purity of 92% +/- 3 (mean +/- SD; n = 20), with viabilities of 96% +/- 2 and total yields of 5.1 +/- 0.7 X 10(6) cells per mouse. Crude lung cell suspensions were prepared by intratracheal instillation of Dispase and agarose followed by mechanical disaggregation of the lungs. Crude cell suspensions were purified by negative selection using a biotinylated-antibody, streptavidin-coated biomagnetic particle system. Cell purities were determined by Pap staining and confirmed ultrastructurally. Purified ATII cells were cultured on fibronectin-coated chamber slides and maintained for up to 5 days in DMEM with 10% fetal bovine serum. Cultures exhibited minimal contamination by Clara cells, mesenchymal cells, or endothelial cells, and the epithelial nature of the cultures was confirmed by positive cytokeratin staining in at least 97% of the cells through day 5. Day 3 cultures demonstrated osmium tetroxide/tannic acid-stained granules consistent with lamellar bodies in 76% +/- 3.6 of the cells. The cultures displayed features distinct from those previously described for adult rat ATII cells, including irregularly-shaped cells and the formation of numerous cytoplasmic projections in direct contact with other cells. These studies indicate that excellent yields of highly purified, culturable ATII cells can be obtained from genetically defined mice. These techniques may provide powerful new models for the study of parenchymal lung disease in vitro.

                Author and article information

                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó
                1 June 2012
                13 June 2012
                : 2
                : 2 ( otherID: K022535X4502 )
                : 112-120
                [ 1 ] Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research Immune Regulation Group Braunschweig Germany
                [ 2 ] Otto-von-Guericke-University Infection Immunology Group, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine Magdeburg Germany
                [ 3 ] Hannover Medical School Department of Pediatric Pneumology, Allergology and Neonatology Hannover Germany
                [ 4 ] Otto-von-Guericke-University Infection Immunology Group, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine Leipziger Strasse 44 D-39120 Magdeburg Germany
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