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      High prevalence of pain among adult HIV-infected patients at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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          Abstract

          Background

          HIV/AIDS are pressing global health problems. Pain is a common symptom reported by patients living with HIV/AIDS. The exact cause of pain in HIV patients has not been thoroughly described, but it may, due to a symptom of HIV itself, result from opportunistic infections, as a side effect of antiretroviral drugs, concurrent neoplasia or other causes. In addition, pain perception of HIV-infected patients is highly variable and may vary based on cultural context and patient demographics. In Ethiopia, there is insufficient evidence on the prevalence and factors associated with HIV-related pain.

          Methods

          A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 adult HIV-infected patients at Gondar University Hospital antiretroviral care clinic from March 1 to May 1, 2016. Systematic random sampling was used to select study participants. A pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire and a standardized medical record data abstraction tool were used to collect data. A short form brief pain inventory tool was used to measure the outcome. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with pain among adult HIV patients.

          Results

          The prevalence of pain was found to be 51.2% (95% CI: 46.4%–55.9%). Headache (17.9%), abdominal pain (15.6%), and backache (13.3%) were the most common symptoms of study participants. Being female (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–2.9); regular alcohol intake (aOR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.5–7.2); baseline World Health Organization clinical disease stage: II (aOR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.2–4.9), III (aOR=2, 95%, CI: 1.1–3.6), and IV (aOR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.1–5.3); and the presence of a chronic comorbid condition (aOR=5.9, 95% CI: 2.1–16.7) were significantly associated with pain.

          Conclusion

          Adult HIV patients in this sample reported a high level of chronic pain. Healthcare providers should better implement a routine pain assessment among HIV-positive patients to alleviate their suffering.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Occurrence and characteristics of chronic pain in a community-based cohort of indigent adults living with HIV infection.

          Pain is common among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), but little is known about chronic pain in socioeconomically disadvantaged HIV-infected populations with high rates of substance abuse in the postantiretroviral era. This cross-sectional study describes the occurrence and characteristics of pain in a community-based cohort of 296 indigent PLWHA. Participants completed questionnaires about sociodemographics, substance use, depression, and pain. Cut-point analysis was used to generate categories of pain severity. Of the 270 participants who reported pain or the use of a pain medication in the past week, 8.2% had mild pain, 38.1% had moderate pain, and 53.7% had severe pain. Female sex and less education were associated with more severe pain. Depression was more common among participants with severe pain than among those with mild pain. Increasing pain severity was associated with daily pain and with chronic pain. Over half of the participants reported having a prescription for an opioid analgesic. Findings from this study suggest that chronic pain is a significant problem in this high risk, socioeconomically disadvantaged group of patients with HIV disease and high rates of previous or concurrent use of illicit drugs. This article presents epidemiological data showing that unrelieved chronic pain is a significant problem for indigent people living with HIV. Participants reported pain severity similar to those with metastatic cancer. Despite high rates of substance use disorders, approximately half received prescriptions for opioid analgesics, although few for long-acting agents. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Pain in people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review

            Introduction Pain is one of the most commonly reported symptoms in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, wide ranges of pain prevalence have been reported, making it difficult to determine the relative impact of pain in PLWHA. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to establish the prevalence and characteristics of pain and to explore pain management in PLWHA. Methods Studies that included cross-sectional data were included in the search, which was conducted in April 2012. Databases searched using a time limit of March 1982 to March 2012 included PubMed, Scopus, Africa-wide: NIPAD, CINAHL, PsychARTICLES, PSYCINFO, PSYCHIATRYONLINE, ScienceDirect and Web of Science. Search terms selected were “pain” and “HIV” or “acquired immune deficiency syndrome.” Two reviewers independently screened all citation abstracts for inclusion. Methodological quality was evaluated using a standardized 11-item critical appraisal tool. Results After full text review, 61 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Prevalence of pain ranged from a point prevalence of 54% (95%CI 51.14–56.09) to 83% (95%CI 76–88) using a three-month recall period. The reported pain was of moderate-to-severe intensity, and pain was reported in one to two and a half different anatomical sites. Moderate levels of pain interference with function were reported. All nine studies reporting on the adequacy of pain management recorded marked under-treatment of pain. Discussion The studies reviewed reported that pain commonly presents at multiple pain sites with a range of severity suggesting that there are several differing pathological processes contributing to pain at one time. The interplay of variables associated with pain suggests that the biopsychosocial model of pain is an appropriate paradigm from which to view pain in PLWHA and from which to approach the problem, explore causes and establish effective treatment. Conclusions The results highlight that pain is common in PLWHA at all stages of the disease. The prevalence rates for pain in PLWHA do not appear to have diminished over the 30 years spanning the studies reviewed. The body of work available in the literature thus far, while emphasizing the problem of pain, has not had an impact on its management.
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              Risk factors and symptoms associated with pain in HIV-infected adults.

              Studies suggest that people living with HIV (PLWH) experience many unrelieved symptoms. The purpose of this study was to estimate the occurrence of pain in adult PLWH and to determine whether participants with pain differed from those without pain on selected demographic factors, clinical characteristics, symptoms of fatigue, sleep disturbance, anxiety, or depression. The authors conducted a descriptive, comparative, and correlational study of 317 PLWH seen at academic and community clinics in San Francisco. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, the Fatigue Severity Scale, the General Sleep Disturbance Scale, the Profile of Moods State Tension-Anxiety subscale, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. Clinical characteristics (i.e., disease and treatment information) were obtained by self-report. A single item on pain from the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale was used to classify participants into those with and without pain. Pain was highly prevalent (55%) and was associated with immune status (CD4+ T-cell count), race, and sleep disturbance, but not with age, gender, or symptoms of fatigue, depression, or anxiety. Copyright 2010 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2017
                13 October 2017
                : 10
                : 2461-2469
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medical Nursing
                [2 ]Emergency and Critical Nurse Unit
                [3 ]Community Health Unit, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Abere Woretaw Azagew, Department of Medical Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, PO Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia, Email wabere@ 123456ymail.com
                Article
                jpr-10-2461
                10.2147/JPR.S141189
                5648308
                © 2017 Azagew et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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