Population analysis of mesothelium (PAM) done using the in vivo and almost in situ technique of mesothelial cell imprints revealed that lactate-buffered solutions had detrimental effects upon cell viability, that high glucose concentration affected cytokinesis, whereas the association of both components led to a decreased density population of cells showing a larger surface area. In the present study, PAM was done on mesothelium of mice exposed to bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluid (BBF) with glucose concentrations of 1.5 and 4.25%, for periods of time of 2 h, 15 and 30 days, as well as after recovery intervals of 7 and 30 days. BBF did not affect mesothelial cell viability. However, the increased incidence of multinucleated cells observed with both glucose concentrations, more marked with the 4.25% solution, suggests a detrimental effect upon the mechanism of cytokinesis. Furthermore, the higher the glucose concentration, the higher the mean-cell cytoplasmic surface area and the proportion of large cells, both resulting most probably from the regulatory volume increase developed by cells continuously exposed to hyperosmolar fluids. So far, evidence presented in this study suggests once more that BBF is remarkably more compatible with a higher quality of adaptation and survival of the exposed mesothelium than the lactated fluid. The question of whether the alterations induced by the high concentration of glucose result from a specific effect of glucose, by the coincidental hyperosmolarity, or by both still remains unanswered.