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      Phytochrome B integrates light and temperature signals in Arabidopsis

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          Phytochromes function as thermosensors in Arabidopsis.

          Plants are responsive to temperature, and some species can distinguish differences of 1°C. In Arabidopsis, warmer temperature accelerates flowering and increases elongation growth (thermomorphogenesis). However, the mechanisms of temperature perception are largely unknown. We describe a major thermosensory role for the phytochromes (red light receptors) during the night. Phytochrome null plants display a constitutive warm-temperature response, and consistent with this, we show in this background that the warm-temperature transcriptome becomes derepressed at low temperatures. We found that phytochrome B (phyB) directly associates with the promoters of key target genes in a temperature-dependent manner. The rate of phyB inactivation is proportional to temperature in the dark, enabling phytochromes to function as thermal timers that integrate temperature information over the course of the night.
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            Photoreceptor signaling networks in plant responses to shade.

            The dynamic light environment of vegetation canopies is perceived by phytochromes, cryptochromes, phototropins, and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8). These receptors control avoidance responses to preclude exposure to limiting or excessive light and acclimation responses to cope with conditions that cannot be avoided. The low red/far-red ratios of shade light reduce phytochrome B activity, which allows PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) to directly activate the transcription of auxin-synthesis genes, leading to shade-avoidance responses. Direct PIF interaction with DELLA proteins links gibberellin and brassinosteroid signaling to shade avoidance. Shade avoidance also requires CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 (COP1), a target of cryptochromes, phytochromes, and UVR8. Multiple regulatory loops and the input of the circadian clock create a complex network able to respond even to subtle threats of competition with neighbors while still compensating for major environmental fluctuations such as the day-night cycles.
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              Molecular and genetic control of plant thermomorphogenesis.

              Temperature is a major factor governing the distribution and seasonal behaviour of plants. Being sessile, plants are highly responsive to small differences in temperature and adjust their growth and development accordingly. The suite of morphological and architectural changes induced by high ambient temperatures, below the heat-stress range, is collectively called thermomorphogenesis. Understanding the molecular genetic circuitries underlying thermomorphogenesis is particularly relevant in the context of climate change, as this knowledge will be key to rational breeding for thermo-tolerant crop varieties. Until recently, the fundamental mechanisms of temperature perception and signalling remained unknown. Our understanding of temperature signalling is now progressing, mainly by exploiting the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) has emerged as a critical player in regulating phytohormone levels and their activity. To control thermomorphogenesis, multiple regulatory circuits are in place to modulate PIF4 levels, activity and downstream mechanisms. Thermomorphogenesis is integrally governed by various light signalling pathways, the circadian clock, epigenetic mechanisms and chromatin-level regulation. In this Review, we summarize recent progress in the field and discuss how the emerging knowledge in Arabidopsis may be transferred to relevant crop systems.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science
                Science
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                0036-8075
                1095-9203
                November 17 2016
                November 18 2016
                : 354
                : 6314
                : 897-900
                Article
                10.1126/science.aaf5656
                27789798
                7780cba3-d4f2-4c9b-b69f-df56632d8b69
                © 2016

                http://www.sciencemag.org/about/science-licenses-journal-article-reuse


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