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      Interleukin 6 Plays a Role in the Migration of Magnetically Levitated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Spheroids

      Jake Casson, Sam O’Kane, Carol-Anne Smith, Matthew Dalby, Catherine Berry

      Applied Sciences

      MDPI AG

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          Most cited references 40

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          Minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. The International Society for Cellular Therapy position statement.

          The considerable therapeutic potential of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has generated markedly increasing interest in a wide variety of biomedical disciplines. However, investigators report studies of MSC using different methods of isolation and expansion, and different approaches to characterizing the cells. Thus it is increasingly difficult to compare and contrast study outcomes, which hinders progress in the field. To begin to address this issue, the Mesenchymal and Tissue Stem Cell Committee of the International Society for Cellular Therapy proposes minimal criteria to define human MSC. First, MSC must be plastic-adherent when maintained in standard culture conditions. Second, MSC must express CD105, CD73 and CD90, and lack expression of CD45, CD34, CD14 or CD11b, CD79alpha or CD19 and HLA-DR surface molecules. Third, MSC must differentiate to osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondroblasts in vitro. While these criteria will probably require modification as new knowledge unfolds, we believe this minimal set of standard criteria will foster a more uniform characterization of MSC and facilitate the exchange of data among investigators.
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            Matrix metalloproteinases and the regulation of tissue remodelling.

            Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were discovered because of their role in amphibian metamorphosis, yet they have attracted more attention because of their roles in disease. Despite intensive scrutiny in vitro, in cell culture and in animal models, the normal physiological roles of these extracellular proteases have been elusive. Recent studies in mice and flies point to essential roles of MMPs as mediators of change and physical adaptation in tissues, whether developmentally regulated, environmentally induced or disease associated.
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              Structure and function of matrix metalloproteinases and TIMPs.

              Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), also called matrixins, function in the extracellular environment of cells and degrade both matrix and non-matrix proteins. They play central roles in morphogenesis, wound healing, tissue repair and remodelling in response to injury, e.g. after myocardial infarction, and in progression of diseases such as atheroma, arthritis, cancer and chronic tissue ulcers. They are multi-domain proteins and their activities are regulated by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). This review introduces the members of the MMP family and discusses their domain structure and function, proenyme activation, the mechanism of inhibition by TIMPs and their significance in physiology and pathology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ASPCC7
                Applied Sciences
                Applied Sciences
                MDPI AG
                2076-3417
                March 2018
                March 11 2018
                : 8
                : 3
                : 412
                10.3390/app8030412
                © 2018

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Self URI (article page): http://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/8/3/412

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