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      Evaluation of the sustainable development of an island “Blue Economy”: A case study of Hainan, China

      , , , , ,

      Sustainable Cities and Society

      Elsevier BV

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          Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas.

          Estuarine and coastal transformation is as old as civilization yet has dramatically accelerated over the past 150 to 300 years. Reconstructed time lines, causes, and consequences of change in 12 once diverse and productive estuaries and coastal seas worldwide show similar patterns: Human impacts have depleted >90% of formerly important species, destroyed >65% of seagrass and wetland habitat, degraded water quality, and accelerated species invasions. Twentieth-century conservation efforts achieved partial recovery of upper trophic levels but have so far failed to restore former ecosystem structure and function. Our results provide detailed historical baselines and quantitative targets for ecosystem-based management and marine conservation.
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            Control problems of grey systems

             Deng Ju-Long (1982)
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              A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems.

              The management and conservation of the world's oceans require synthesis of spatial data on the distribution and intensity of human activities and the overlap of their impacts on marine ecosystems. We developed an ecosystem-specific, multiscale spatial model to synthesize 17 global data sets of anthropogenic drivers of ecological change for 20 marine ecosystems. Our analysis indicates that no area is unaffected by human influence and that a large fraction (41%) is strongly affected by multiple drivers. However, large areas of relatively little human impact remain, particularly near the poles. The analytical process and resulting maps provide flexible tools for regional and global efforts to allocate conservation resources; to implement ecosystem-based management; and to inform marine spatial planning, education, and basic research.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Sustainable Cities and Society
                Sustainable Cities and Society
                Elsevier BV
                22106707
                March 2021
                March 2021
                : 66
                : 102662
                Article
                10.1016/j.scs.2020.102662
                © 2021

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